生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (3): 304-314.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017331

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“艺术的外貌、科学的内涵、使命的担当”——植物园500年来的科研与社会功能变迁(二):科学的内涵

黄宏文*()   

  1. 中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-19 接受日期:2018-02-05 出版日期:2018-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄宏文 E-mail:huanghw@scbg.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY210100)

“Science, art and responsibility”: The scientific and social function changes of a 500-year history of botanical gardens. II. Intension of sciences

Hongwen Huang*()   

  1. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2017-12-19 Accepted:2018-02-05 Online:2018-03-20
  • Contact: Huang Hongwen E-mail:huanghw@scbg.ac.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

世界植物园500多年来的科研行进轨迹既是整个生物学发展史的一个缩影, 也表现出人类对植物资源发掘与利用, 使之服务于经济与社会发展的不懈追求。从16-17世纪的植物园主要研究药用植物并发掘药物, 到18-20世纪以来从植物分类学逐步拓展至众多植物学分支学科, 进一步发展到当今的植物分子生物学及基因组、代谢组学等等。植物园在长达几个世纪的发展进程中, 其科学研究内涵始终贯穿其中, 既奠定了18世纪植物分类学的根基, 也对18世纪以来许多生物学发现及其理论体系的建立作出了不可磨灭的贡献。同时, 16世纪以来跨大陆、跨地区、跨国家之间的植物引种驯化及其发掘利用与传播深刻改变了世界经济社会格局, 影响了一些国家的兴衰。在近代500多年的植物引种驯化与传播过程中, 植物园发挥了引领作用。本文试图对植物园500年来的科学研究轨迹进行梳理, 展望当今植物园在植物宏观与微观生物学及其大数据时代相关研究领域的发展趋势, 为我国植物园的科研方向提供可借鉴的参考。

关键词: 植物分类, 植物生物学, 植物引种与传播, 迁地保护, 栽培植物

The advance trajectory of scientific research in the world botanical gardens over past 500 years is not only a microcosm of the whole history of biological sciences, but also reveal the unremitting pursuit of mankind exploration and utilization of plant resources for development of economy and society. From the 16th-17th centuries, botanical garden’s main studies on medicinal plants and drug discovery, to the 18th-20th centuries’ founding plant taxonomy and then branching to various botanical disciplines, to nowadays’ plant molecular biology and genomics, metabolomics and so on, scientific research connotation of botanical gardens have been mainstream process during these centuries when not only laid the foundation of plant taxonomy in the 18th century, but also made indelible contributions to many biological discoveries and establishment of theoretical system since the 18th century. Meanwhile, since the 16th century, the introduction and domestication of crop plants across continents, regions and countries have profoundly changed the world economic and social structure and affected the rise and fall of many countries. The botanical gardens have played a pilot and leading role for introduction and spread of crop plants over the past 500 years. This paper attempts to review historical track of intension of sciences of botanical gardens in recent 500 years for revealing future trend of the research fields relating to plant macro and micro biology and era of big data in today’s botanical gardens in order to provide reference of valuable thinking for scientific research in botanical gardens of China.

Key words: plant taxonomy, plant biology, plant introduction and spread, ex situ conservation, cultivated plants

表1

后哥伦布时期引种的重要植物"

15-17世纪引种的主要植物种类
Main plant introductions in the 15th-17th centuries
引入欧洲时间(年代)
Year into Europe
引入中国时间
Year into China
辣椒 Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens 1493 1591前 Before 1591
玉米 Zea mays 1494 1520-1550
花生 Arachis hypogaea 1494 1520
木薯 Manihot esculenta 1550前Before 1550 1820
陆地棉 Gossypium hirsutum 1750 1865
Phaseolus vulgaris, P. lunatus, P. coccineus 1500 1563前 Before 1563
菠萝 Ananas comosus 1502 1558前 Before 1558
红薯 Impomaea batatas 1526前Before 1526 1570-1580
鳄梨 Persaea americana 1519前 Before 1519 1918
向日葵 Helianthus annuus 1568 1573-1620
番茄 Lycopersicon esculentum 1512 1617前 Before 1617
烟草 Nicotiana tabacum 1550前 Before 1550 1624
土豆 Solanum tuberosum 1565-1570 1650前 Before 1650
南瓜 Cucurbita spp. 1570 1538前 Before 1538
番荔枝 Annona cherimolia 1751-1797 1614
可可 Theobroma cacao 1528 1922
洋姜 Helianthus tuberosus 1607 18世纪末 End of 18th century
西番莲 Passiflora caerulea 1610 1724
18-19世纪殖民地植物园引种的重要植物
Main plant introductions by colonial botanical
gardens in 18th-19th centuries
引种植物园(建园时间)
Name of botanical gardens (time established)
Camellia sinensis 印度豪拉植物园(1787
Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (1787)
橡胶 Hevea brasilensis 1876年英国邱园引种后传到印尼茂物植物园、新加坡植物园
Kew gardens introduced in 1876, then re-introduced to Bogor Botanical Garden of Indonisia and Singapore Botanical Garden.
木薯 Manihotes culenta 毛里求斯庞普勒穆斯植物园(1767)
Pamplemousses Botanical Garden, Mauritius (1767)
咖啡 Coffea arabica 印度豪拉植物园(1787)
Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (1787)
面包树 Artocar pusaltilis 圣文森特植物园(1764) St. Vincent Botanic Garden (1764)
喹啉 Cinchona officinalis, C. pubescens 印尼茂物植物园(1817) Bogor Botanic Garden (1817)
肉豆蔻 Myristica fragrans 圣文森特植物园(1764) St. Vincent Botanic Garden (1764)
竹芋 Maranta arundinacea 圣文森特植物园(1764) St.Vincent Botanic Garden (1764)
海岛棉 Gossypium barbadense 圣文森特植物园(1764) St. Vincent Botanic Garden (1764)
西谷椰子 Metroxylon sagu 印度豪拉植物园(1787) Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (1787)
椰枣 Phoenix dactylifera 印度豪拉植物园(1787) Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (1787)
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