外来入侵种,入侵机制,奠基者效应,多次引种," /> 外来入侵种,入侵机制,奠基者效应,多次引种,"/> 遗传多样性与外来物种的成功入侵: 现状和展望

生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (6): 590-597.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.2010.590

所属专题: 外来物种入侵:机制、影响与防控

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遗传多样性与外来物种的成功入侵: 现状和展望

施雯, 耿宇鹏*, 欧晓昆   

  1. 云南大学生态学与地植物学研究所,昆明 650091
  • 收稿日期:2010-05-04 出版日期:2010-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 耿宇鹏 Author for correspondence. E-mail: ypgeng@ynu.edu.cn

Genetic diversity and invasion success of alien species: where are we and where should we go?

Wen Shi; Yu-peng Geng*; Xiaokun Ou   

  1. Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
  • Received:2010-05-04 Online:2010-11-20
  • Contact: Yu-peng Geng Author for correspondence. E-mail: ypgeng@ynu.edu.cn

遗传多样性被认为是影响外来种入侵成功的重要因素之一。研究表明, 尽管外来种在入侵过程中可能受到奠基者效应的影响, 但是多次引种、种内或种间杂交等过程使得许多外来种在引入地的遗传多样性水平未必会显著低于原产地, 从而使得外来种可能通过快速进化来适应引入地的新生境。然而, 高水平的遗传多样性并非成功入侵的必要条件, 遗传变异的匮乏对一些外来种的入侵能力没有明显的影响, 甚至在一些生物入侵案例中, 遗传多样性的降低反而促进了入侵成功。针对遗传多样性与入侵成功之间的复杂关系, 本文在评述外来种遗传多样性的研究现状的基础上, 分析了遗传多样性对外来种的短期入侵成功和长期进化的影响机制, 从方法角度探讨了目前研究中存在的若干问题, 并对如何推进入侵生态学研究提出了一些看法。正如一些学者提出的, 入侵生态学需要与生态学其他分支整合起来, 才能加深对生物入侵及其相关的生态和进化过程的理解。

关键词: 外来入侵种')">外来入侵种, 入侵机制, 奠基者效应, 多次引种

Genetic diversity is hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of alien species. Although many alien species have experienced genetic bottlenecks during invasion, multiple introductions and intra- or inter- specific hybridization may result in high levels of genetic variation that are comparable to native conspecifics. This genetic variation could enable plants to adapt to novel habitats through rapid evolution. However, research has shown that genetic uniformity sometimes has little effect on invasiveness, and instead, may even aid successful invasion by some alien species. These results suggest that high levels of genetic diversity are not always necessary in biological invasions. In this review, we explore relationships between genetic diversity and successful invasions. We examine the possible mechanisms through which genetic diversity can influence the short-term success and long-term evolution of alien species. Additionally, we raise and discuss issues that deserve attention in future studies. Future research should unite invasion ecology and other ecological disciplines in order to deepen our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes involved with biological invasions.

Key words: invasive alien species, founder effect, mechanism of invasion, multiple introductions

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