生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 293-301.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13269

所属专题: 生物多样性信息学专题(II)

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生物多样性数据共享和发表: 进展和建议

黄晓磊*(), 乔格侠*()   

  1. 中国科学院动物研究所动物进化与系统学重点实验室, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2013-12-30 接受日期:2014-05-12 出版日期:2014-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄晓磊,乔格侠 E-mail:huangxl@ioz.ac.cn;qiaogx@ioz.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(31272348)、中国科学院动物进化与系统学重点实验室开放课题(Y229YX5105)、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA05080703)和国家科技基础条件平台——动物标本资源共享平台项目

Sharing and publishing of biodiversity data: recent trends and future suggestions

Xiaolei Huang*(), Gexia Qiao*()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2013-12-30 Accepted:2014-05-12 Online:2014-05-20
  • Contact: Huang Xiaolei,Qiao Gexia E-mail:huangxl@ioz.ac.cn;qiaogx@ioz.ac.cn

生物多样性研究、保护实践、自然资源管理及科学决策等越来越依赖于大量数据的共享和整合。虽然关于数据共享的呼吁和实践越来越多, 但很多科学家仍然主动或被动地拒绝共享数据。关于数据共享, 现实中存在一些认知和技术上的障碍, 比如科学家不愿意共享数据, 担心同行竞争, 认为缺少足够的回报, 不熟悉相关数据保存机构, 缺少简便的数据提交工具, 没有足够时间和经费等。解决这些问题及改善共享文化的关键在于使共享者获得适当的回报(比如数据引用)。基于同行评审的数据发表被认为不但能够为生产、管理和共享数据的科学家提供一种激励机制, 并且能够有效地促进数据再利用。因而, 数据发表作为数据共享的方式之一, 近来引起了较多关注, 在生物多样性领域出现了专门发表数据论文的期刊。在采取数据论文的模式上, 数据保存机构和科技期刊采用联合数据政策在促进数据共享方面可能更具可行性。本文总结了数据共享和发表方面的进展, 讨论了数据论文能在何种程度上促进数据共享, 以及数据共享和数据发表的关系等问题, 提出如下建议: (1)个体科学家应努力践行数据共享; (2)使用DOI号解决数据所有权和数据引用的问题; (3)科技期刊和数据保存机构联合采用更加合理和严格的数据保存政策; (4)资助机构和研究单位应当在数据共享中起到更重要的作用。

关键词: 数据发表, 数据论文, 数据期刊, 科学政策, 可重复性, 生态学, 环境保护

Biodiversity research, conservation practices, natural resource management, and scientific decision-making increasingly depend on the sharing and integration of large amounts of primary data. In recent years, there has been an appeal increased sharing of biodiversity data, however, many scientists actively or passively resist sharing data. Some major cultural and technological obstacles exist among scientists, such as keeping data private to conduct other analyses, conflicts of interests with colleagues, lack of benefits, unfamiliarity with public databases, lack of user-friendly data submission tools, and lack of time and funding. One solution to improve the culture of data sharing is to provide benefits to scientists who share data (e.g. data citations). Recently, some organizations and scientists have advocated data publishing under peer review as a reward mechanism for individuals involved in data creation, management and sharing, and as a way to effectively increase the use and reuse of data. New data journals have been launched to fulfill the function of publishing data. In fact, besides the advocate of scholarly publication of data, an improved joint data archiving policy by databases and scientific journals may be more practically feasible to improve data sharing in a broader sense. In this article we review recent progress in data sharing and publishing and discuss to what extent data papers can boost data sharing and how to define ‘data sharing’ and ‘data publishing’. We also provide suggestions for improving data sharing by individual scientists, data repositories, journals, and funding agencies/institutions.

Key words: data publishing, data paper, data journal, science policy, science reproducibility, ecology, environmental conservation

图1

数据共享流程简图, 包括主要参与方和决定共享效果的主要因素。资助机构在数据共享的不同环节都可能起作用。"

图2

数据保存机构和科技期刊的联合数据政策"

图3

数据共享和数据发表的关系。数据共享包含非基于发表的数据共享(电子邮件、可移动磁盘等)和基于发表的数据共享(数据库、数据论文、个人网站等), 即数据发表。"

表1

一些生物多样性数据保存机构及其特点(更多数据保存机构及介绍参见Databib (http://databib.org))"

数据保存机构
Data repository
数据类型和说明
Data type and notes
元数据
Metadata
可引用对象
Citable object
开放程度
Access
GenBank
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank
DNA序列; 标准格式
DNA sequences; standard format
要求
Required
序列号
Accession number
开放
Open
Barcode of Life Database (BOLD)
http://www.boldsystems.org
DNA条形码及相关数据; 标准格式
DNA barcodes; standard format
要求
Required
序列号
Accession number
开放
Open
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) http://www.gbif.org 物种分布数据; 标准格式
Species occurrence data; standard format
要求
Required

No
开放
Open
TreeBASE
http://www.treebase.org
系统发育树及相关数据
Phylogenetic trees and related data
建议
Suggested

No
开放
Open
Dryad
http://datadryad.org
生态进化出版物相关数据; 无标准格式
Ecology & evolution data associated with publications; no standard format
建议
Suggested
数字对象标识
DOI
开放
Open
figshare
http://figshare.com
任何类型的数据; 无标准格式
Any type of data; no standard format
可选
Optional
数字对象标识
DOI
根据情况
Variable
中国国家标本资源共享平台
China National Specimen Information Infrastructure http://www.nsii.org.cn
标本数据
Specimen data
可选
Optional

No
根据情况
Variable
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