生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (1): 66-71.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13248

所属专题: 基因组和生物多样性

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发育重塑与生物多样性

张睿*(), 国春策, 山红艳, 孔宏智   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2013-11-29 接受日期:2014-01-24 出版日期:2014-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 张睿 E-mail:iloverdz@ibcas.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(30530090)

Developmental repatterning and biodiversity

Rui Zhang*(), Chunce Guo, Hongyan Shan, Hongzhi Kong   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2013-11-29 Accepted:2014-01-24 Online:2014-01-20
  • Contact: Zhang Rui E-mail:iloverdz@ibcas.ac.cn

多细胞生物的成熟个体都是由单细胞的受精卵发育而来的。如果把成熟个体的表型看成生命存在的式样或模式(pattern), 那么发育就是形成和产生这种式样或模式的过程, 即塑造(patterning)或发育塑造(developmental patterning)。相应地, 对原来发育过程进行修饰或改变而产生新表型的过程就是发育重塑(developmental repatterning)。已有的研究结果表明, 发育重塑在多细胞生物的进化过程中非常普遍, 也非常重要。根据突变的类型和后果, 发育重塑既包括对相同基因在表达的时、空和量上的改变, 分别为异时(heterochrony)、异位(heterotopy)和异量(heterometry), 又包括对基因类型的改变, 即异型(heterotypy)。本文通过对一些经典案例的介绍, 揭示了发育重塑与表型变化的关系, 探讨发育重塑对生物多样性的贡献。

关键词: 生物多样性, 发育重塑, 异时, 异位, 异量, 异型

Adult individuals of multicellular organisms are derived from single cells, the zygote. If the phenotype of a mature organism is regarded as a pattern of existence, then the process that generates the pattern can be called developmental patterning. Consequently, modification or alteration of the original developmental trajectory to generate novel phenotype(s) is the process of developmental repatterning. Accumulated data in recent years suggest that developmental repatterning is not only widespread, but is also very important during the evolution of multicellular organisms. According to the type and consequence of mutation, developmental repatterning can be divided into four main types: heterochrony, heterotopy, heterometry, and heterotypy. Heterochrony, heterotopy and heterometry refer to changes of gene expression over time, space and in amount/concentration, respectively, while heterotypy is the replacement of gene product. Here, by introducing examples of developmental repatterning, we explain the relationship between developmental repatterning and phenotypic evolution, and discuss its contribution to biodiversity.

Key words: biodiversity, developmental repatterning, heterochrony, heterotopy, heterometry, heterotypy

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