生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (6): 533-548.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09253

所属专题: 群落中的物种多样性:格局与机制

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

植物群落清查的主要内容、方法和技术规范

方精云1*, 王襄平1, 2, 沈泽昊1, 唐志尧1, 贺金生1, 于丹3, 江源4, 王志恒1, 郑成洋1, 朱江玲1, 郭兆迪1   

  1. 1 (北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,
    北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871)
    2 (北京林业大学省部共建森林培育与保护教育部重点实验室, 北京 100083)
    3 (武汉大学生命科学学院, 武汉大学梁子湖湖泊生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站, 武汉 430072)
    4 (北京师范大学资源学院, 北京 100875)
  • 收稿日期:2009-10-29 出版日期:2009-11-20

Methods and protocols for plant community inventory

Jingyun Fang1*, Xiangping Wang1, 2, Zehao Shen1, Zhiyao Tang1, Jinsheng He1, Dan Yu3, Yuan Jiang4, Zhiheng Wang1, Chengyang Zheng1, Jiangling Zhu1, Zhaodi Guo1   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Center for Ecological Research & Education, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    3 College of Life Sciences, and National Field Station for Lake Ecosystem in Liangzi Lake, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072
    4 College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2009-10-29 Online:2009-11-20

植物群落是不同植物在长期环境变化中相互作用、相互适应而形成的组合。它提供着人类赖以生存的主要物质资源, 维系着地球生态系统的健康和功能, 也为各种动物和其他生物提供食物来源和栖息地, 是人类生存和发展不可或缺的物质基础, 具有不可替代的作用。我国植物群落类型多样, 在世界上首屈一指, 但我国至今尚没有一次全面和系统的植物群落清查, 不仅影响了人们对我国植物资源的了解、利用和保护, 也不利于我国生态学、环境科学和地理学等相关学科的发展。采用统一的方法体系和技术规范开展我国植物群落的清查工作势在必行, 并具有紧迫性。本文基于作者长期的野外工作实践和国内外的群落调查方法, 首先简要定义了与植物群落清查有关的重要概念, 在此基础上, 论述了调查样地的设置原则和体系、群落清查的技术指标和方法、主要优势种生态属性的测定方法和规范, 并介绍了大样地调查的主要步骤。通过本文的介绍、归纳和总结, 试图为制定我国植物群落清查的技术规范提供基础材料和技术储备。

A plant community is an assemblage of plant populations that live in certain area, and interact with and adapt to one another in the context of long-term environmental changes. Plant communities maintain global ecosystem functions, and provide food and habitats for animals and other organisms. Plant communities also provide primary resources for human survival and development, and are therefore indispensable to human societies. China is among the countries with the most diverse plant communities in the world. However, no systematic national inventory has been conducted for Chinese plant communities. This fact obstructs exploitation and protection of China’s plant resources, and also hampers the development of the fields of Chinese ecology and geography. There is an urgent need to survey Chinese plant communities using consis-tent methods and protocols. In this paper, we review major concepts in plant community ecology, and pro-pose a framework for developing plant community inventories based on recent progress in community ecol-ogy and our own experience with long-term field surveys. Our framework provides protocols for site selec-tion and plot design, items to be measured in a plot, and measurements of functional traits of dominant spe-cies. We also review protocols for field surveys of large, long-term plots. The protocols proposed in this pa-per are expected to be a base for standardizing methodology for inventory of Chinese plant communities.

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