生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (2): 168-173.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08341

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

一种非传粉榕小蜂的繁殖策略及其对榕—蜂互利共生系统的影响

王振吉1, 2, 张凤萍1, 2, 彭艳琼1, 杨大荣1*   

  1. 1 (中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 昆明 650223)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 出版日期:2009-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨大荣

Reproductive strategy and impact on the fig–pollinator mutualism of one non-pollinating fig wasp species

Zhenji Wang1, 2, Fengping Zhang1, 2, Yanqiong Peng1, Darong Yang1*   

  1. 1 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Online:2009-03-20
  • Contact: Darong Yang

为了解非传粉榕小蜂与榕树—传粉榕小蜂互利共生系统的作用方式和作用强度, 从而揭示它们长期稳定共存的原因, 作者于2008年在西双版纳热带植物园研究了钝叶榕(Ficus curtipes)非传粉榕小蜂Walkerella sp.与榕—蜂互利共生系统的相互关系。我们野外直接观察Walkerella sp.的产卵繁殖行为, 并对Walkerella sp.和传粉榕小蜂进行控制放蜂实验。实验包括4类处理榕果: 传粉榕小蜂单种放蜂果, Walkerella sp.单种放蜂果, Walkerella sp.与传粉榕小蜂混合放蜂果, 自然果。结果表明, Walkerella sp.在榕果外产卵, 并且可以将卵产在多个榕果上。单因素方差分析结果表明: 混合放蜂果和自然果内传粉榕小蜂后代数量差异不大(P = 0.46), 但都显著低于传粉榕小蜂单种放蜂果(P < 0.01); 在传粉榕小蜂单种放蜂果以及混合放蜂果内种子数量不存在显著差异(P = 0.33), 但都显著高于自然果(P < 0.01)。自然果内Walkerella sp.后代数量与传粉榕小蜂数量呈显著的相关关系, 而在混合放蜂果内两者呈低度负相关。Walkerella sp.与种子数量在自然果和混合放蜂果都不存在显著的相关关系。单因素方差分析结果表明, Walk-erella sp.单种放蜂果、混合放蜂果及自然果中Walkerella sp.数量不存在显著差异(P < 0.01)。对自然果内所有种类小蜂的相关分析表明: Walkerella sp.与其他非传粉榕小蜂都不存在显著的相关关系, 这说明不存在寄居或复寄生的非传粉榕小蜂种类控制Walkerella sp.的数量。而Walkerella sp.之所以没有完全利用榕果内的小花资源繁殖后代, 是由于产卵量有限和后代必须依靠传粉榕小蜂雄虫打开苞片口才能离开榕果, 必须给传粉小蜂留下一些繁殖资源。

In order to understand the nature and intensity of interactions between non-pollinating fig wasps and fig–pollinator mutualist wasps, and consequently shed light on why they coexist, we studied interactions between Walkerella sp. and the Ficus curtipes fig–pollinator mutualism in Xishuangbanna Botanical Garden in 2008. The reproductive behaviour of Walkerella sp. was studied by means of observation, and a controlled experiment was applied to study interspecies relationships. Figs only with pollinator, figs only with Walk-erella sp., figs with both pollinator and Walkerella sp. and natural figs were compared in this research. Walk-erella sp. was observed ovipositing on the outside of the fig. One Walkerella sp. can oviposit on many figs. ANOVA showed that the number of pollinator in figs with both pollinator and Walkerella sp. is significantly lower than that in figs only with pollinator (P < 0.01), while the number of seed did not differ between figs with only pollinators and figs with both Walkerella sp. and pollinator (P = 0.33). The number of Walkerella sp. did not differ among figs with only Walkerella sp., figs with both pollinator and Walkerella sp. and natural figs. Our results support the hypothesis that Walkerella sp. affects pollinator number, but not seed number and there is no inquiline or parasitoid affecting the number of Walkerella sp. The requirement of male pollinators to dig a hole in the fig wall may limit the number of Walkerella sp. eggs in the figs.

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