生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (2): 135-142.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08256

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

论传统知识的概念与保护

薛达元1, 2*, 郭泺1   

  1. 1 (中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081)
    2 (环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042)
  • 出版日期:2009-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元

On concepts and protection of traditional knowledge

Dayuan Xue1, 2*, Luo Guo1   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
  • Online:2009-03-20
  • Contact: Dayuan Xue

近年来, 传统知识受到国际国内的广泛关注, 特别是与生物资源相关的传统知识保护问题在《生物多样性公约》等国际论坛已成为焦点议题。然而, 传统知识尚没有统一的定义。本文在分析相关国际公约有关传统知识的概念的基础上, 结合作者过去几年在中国民族地区的相关研究工作, 提出与生物资源保护与持续利用相关的传统知识可分为以下5类: (1)传统利用农业生物及遗传资源的知识; (2)传统利用药用生物资源的知识; (3)生物资源利用的传统技术创新与传统生产生活方式; (4)与生物资源保护与利用相关的传统文化与习惯法; (5)传统地理标志产品。本文还针对目前传统知识保护中存在的问题, 探讨了开展传统知识调查、整理、编目、继承、发展、保护和推广应用的各项措施, 并提出建立国家法规制度, 以确保公平公正地与地方社区和土著居民分享因利用传统知识而产生的惠益。

Recently, traditional knowledge (TK) has attracted increasing attention both domestically and internationally, especially the TK associated with conservation and sustainable use of biological resources; this topic has been included in the Convention on Biological Diversity and other international forums. However, no internationally-recognized definition of traditional knowledge exists. Based on analysis of TK concepts in relevant international conventions and instruments, combined with our current research in ethnic areas of China, we propose the following categories for TK associated with biological resources: (1) use of agricul-tural species and genetic resources; (2) use of medicinal species; (3) technical innovations for use of biologi-cal resources and traditional farming and lifestyle practices; (4) traditional cultures and customary laws re-lated to conservation and sustainable use of biological resources; and (5) traditional local marker products. We present suggestions for how to investigate and document TK in order to foster the transfer, development, protection, and popularization of TK. These suggestions will also help to fairly share the benefits produced from the use of TK with indigenous people and local communities.

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