生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 813-818.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019131

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    

贵州梵净山国家级自然保护区鸟兽红外相机监测

张明明1, 2, 杨朝辉1, 王丞1, 王娇娇1, 胡灿实1, 2, 雷孝平3, 石磊3, 粟海军1, 2, *(), 李佳琦4, *()   

  1. 1 贵州大学林学院/生物多样性与自然保护研究中心, 贵阳 550025
    2 山地植物资源保护与种质创新教育部重点实验室, 贵阳 550025
    3 贵州梵净山国家级自然保护区管理局, 贵州江口 554400
    4 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-15 接受日期:2019-07-17 出版日期:2019-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 粟海军,李佳琦 E-mail:hjsu@gzu.edu.cn;99357107@qq.com
  • 基金项目:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(MM-2016-029);生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(MM-2016-030);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2019]2842号)

Camera-trapping survey on mammals and birds in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China

Zhang Mingming1, 2, Yang Zhaohui1, Wang Cheng1, Wang Jiaojiao1, Hu Canshi1, 2, Lei Xiaoping3, Shi Lei3, Su Haijun1, 2, *(), Li Jiaqi4, *()   

  1. 1 College of Forestry, Research Center for Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    2 Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Germplasm Innovation in Mountainous Region (Ministry of Education), Guiyang 550025
    3 Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau, Jiangkou, Guizhou 554400
    4 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2019-04-15 Accepted:2019-07-17 Online:2019-07-20
  • Contact: Su Haijun,Li Jiaqi E-mail:hjsu@gzu.edu.cn;99357107@qq.com

红外相机监测是了解野生动物多样性现状、动态变化和面临威胁的重要手段。本研究采用网格抽样调查法, 在贵州梵净山国家级自然保护区内选取2个监测样区共40个监测位点布设红外相机, 对区内兽类和鸟类物种进行监测调查。2017年4月至2018年12月间, 红外相机累积监测14,808个相机工作日, 共收集有效照片14,119张, 独立有效物种照片3,199张。共鉴定野生动物9目22科61种, 其中兽类26种, 隶属于4目12科; 鸟类35种, 隶属于5目10科。记录到国家I级重点保护野生动物2种: 黔金丝猴(Rhinopithecus brelichi)和白颈长尾雉(Syrmaticus ellioti), 国家II级重点保护野生动物9种; 被IUCN红色名录评估为濒危(EN)的1种、易危(VU)的5种、近危(NT)的8种。物种的相对多度指数(relative abundance index, RAI)分析结果显示, 藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana, RAI = 28.23)、毛冠鹿(Elaphodus cephalophus, RAI = 15.46)、野猪(Sus scrofa, RAI = 11.82)、小麂(Muntiacus reevesi, RAI = 9.05)、黔金丝猴(RAI = 7.70)为相对多度最高的5种兽类; 紫啸鸫(Myophonus insularis, RAI = 10.33)、红腹角雉(Tragopan temminckii, RAI = 9.59)、红腹锦鸡(Chrysolophus pictus, RAI = 6.96)、白颈长尾雉(RAI = 3.71)、勺鸡(Pucrasia macrolopha, RAI = 1.55)为相对多度最高的5种鸟类。另外, 红外相机还监测到较多的家畜活动(RAI = 11.14)和人为活动(RAI = 12.90), 保护区管理部门仍需采取相应管理措施, 进一步提高周边居民的保护意识, 促进保护区与社区的协调发展。

关键词: 兽类, 鸟类, 物种多样性, 红外相机监测, 梵净山国家级自然保护区

Camera-trapping allows scientists to gain new insights into the protection status and threats toward biodiversity. Mammals and birds in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve were monitored using 40 camera traps in 2 independent plots based on grid sampling survey method. A total of 3,199 independent images (out of 14,119 recognizable images) were collected with an extensive survey effort of 14,808 camera-days during April 2017 to December 2018. 61 species within 9 orders and 22 families were recorded and identified, including 26 mammal species belonging to 4 orders and 12 families, and 35 avian species belonging to 5 orders and 10 families. Among the recorded species, Rhinopithecus brelichi and Syrmaticus ellioti are listed as Class I National Protected Wildlife in China. Worth noting, Rhinopithecus brelichi is listed as Endangered (EN) in the IUCN Red List, 9 species listed as Class II, 5 species as Vulnerable (VU), and 8 species as Near Threatened (NT). The relative abundance index (RAI) is widely used to assess the regional species abundance. The five most abundant mammal species with highest RAIs in Fanjingshan Naitonal Nature Reserve were Macaca thibetana (RAI = 28.23), Elaphodus cephalophus (RAI = 15.46), Sus scrofa (RAI = 11.82), Muntiacus reevesi (RAI = 9.05) and Rhinopithecus brelichi (RAI = 7.70). Additionally, the five most abundant avian species with highest RAIs were Myophonus insularis (RAI = 10.33), Tragopan temminckii (RAI = 9.59), Chrysolophus pictus (RAI = 6.96), Syrmaticus ellioti (RAI = 3.71) and Pucrasia macrolopha (RAI = 1.55). During the study, intensive livestock (RAI = 11.14) and human (RAI = 12.90) activities were recorded, which may elucidate the potential threat to the protection of wildlife and their habitat. We recommended that the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau should take more actions in improving the public awareness to protect wildlife, and in promoting the harmonious development of the reserve and local communities.

Key words: mammals, birds, species diversity, camera-trapping survey, Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve

图1

梵净山国家级自然保护区红外相机监测抽样方案"

表1

梵净山国家级自然保护区不同生境红外相机监测点拍摄物种数量"

生境类型
Habitat type
相机数
Number of
cameras
总照片数
Number of
images
有效照片数
Number of
independent images
物种总数
Number of
captured species
每台相机平均拍摄物种数
Number of captured
species per camera
常绿阔叶林 Broad-leaved evergreen forest 5 14,289 312 29 10.20 ± 4.66
常绿落叶阔叶林
Evergreen deciduous broad-leaved forest
19 29,909 1,864 49 11.42 ± 5.95
灌丛 Shrub 1 418 41 6 11.00
溪流 Stream 2 1,091 145 18 10.50 ± 7.78
落叶阔叶林 Deciduous broad-leaved forest 8 18,289 685 31 9.50 ± 4.99
针阔混交林
Mixed broad leaved-conifer forest
2 2,510 60 9 7.00 ± 1.41
针叶林 Coniferous forest 2 476 39 10 6.00 ± 1.41
竹林 Bamboo 1 2,657 53 10 10.00
总计 Total 40 69,639 3,199 61 -
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