生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 743-748.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019108

• 生物多样性相关传统知识专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

西双版纳黄瓜农家品种及其传统知识

杨云卉1, 白可喻2, 3, Devra Jarvis4, 龙春林1, 5, *()   

  1. 1 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
    2 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所, 北京 100081
    3 国际生物多样性中心东亚办事处, 北京 100081
    4 Bioversity International, 00057 Maccarese, Rome, Italy
    5 民族医药教育部重点实验室(中央民族大学), 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-28 接受日期:2019-05-14 出版日期:2019-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 龙春林 E-mail:long@mail.kib.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31761143001);国家自然科学基金(31161140345);生态环境部部门预算项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Xishuangbanna cucumber landraces and associated traditional knowledge

Yang Yunhui1, Bai Keyu2, 3, Jarvis Devra4, Long Chunlin1, 5, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China
    2 Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
    3 Bioversity International, Office for East Asia, Beijing 100081, China
    4 Bioversity International, 00057 Maccarese, Rome, Italy
    5 Key Laboratory of Ethnomedicine (Minzu University of China), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2019-03-28 Accepted:2019-05-14 Online:2019-07-20
  • Contact: Long Chunlin E-mail:long@mail.kib.ac.cn

西双版纳黄瓜(Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis)是黄瓜的一个变种。云南省西双版纳及周边地区的少数民族长期以来栽培、管理和利用这种黄瓜, 使它成为当地重要的作物农家品种, 对其开展民族植物学研究, 了解其传统知识十分必要。我们于2017-2018年在西双版纳傣族自治州调查了西双版纳黄瓜农家品种及其相关的传统知识。结果表明, 与现代品种相比, 西双版纳黄瓜农家品种具有香味浓郁、耐贮藏等特异性; 西双版纳的傣族、基诺族、彝族、瑶族等少数民族拥有丰富的关于西双版纳黄瓜农家品种的传统知识。西双版纳黄瓜种质资源在大部分村寨已经消失或濒临消失, 与之相关的传统知识也随之消亡, 目前仅在海拔较高、交通欠发达的边远山区还栽培和保留了少量的农家品种。建议开展西双版纳黄瓜农家品种的原生境保护, 既保护其种质资源, 也保护相关的传统知识。

关键词: 西双版纳黄瓜, 农家品种, 传统知识, 生物多样性, 原生境保护

The Xishuangbanna cucumber variety (XC), Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis, has been cultivated, managed and used for many generations by ethnic people in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, South Yunnan, China. It has become a significant crop landrace in local communities. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted in Xishuangbanna in 2017-2018 to collect the agronomic traits of XC and the associated traditional knowledge. The results show that the XC fruit is characterized by its shelf life and delicious flavor. The Dai, Jinuo, Yi, Yao and other ethnic communities were believed to historically possess rich traditional knowledge about XC. Most villagers today, however, did not grow XC and thus their XC genetic resources have been lost together with the traditional knowledge. Only a few households in the remote and high-altitude mountainous villages continue to cultivate very limited amounts of XC for family consumption. The genetic resources of XC and the associated traditional cultures have suffered rapid decline. We suggest that on-farm conservation should be adopted to protect both the genetic resources of XC and the associated traditional knowledge.

Key words: Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis, landrace, traditional knowledge, biodiversity, in situ conservation

表1

主要调查地点及西双版纳黄瓜农家品种种植情况"

县市
County
乡镇
Township
村寨/市场
Village/Market
主要民族
Nationality
是否种植黄瓜
Cultivation
景洪
Jinghong
勐养 Mengyang 勐养集市 Mengyang Market 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
基诺族 Jinuo 亚诺寨 Yanuo 基诺族 Jinuo 否 No
巴卡小寨一组 Baka Village Group 1 基诺族 Jinuo 是 Yes
巴卡小寨三组 Baka Village Group 3 基诺族 Jinuo 是 Yes
新寨 Xinzhai 基诺族 Jinuo 是 Yes
扎果树村 Zhaguoshu 基诺族 Jinuo 是 Yes
勐腊
Mengla
勐仑 Menglun 曼炸综合集贸市场 Manzha Market 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
曼纳堵村 Mannadu 傣族 Dai 否 No
勐伴 Mengban 城子一组 Chengzi Group 1 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
卡咪村 Kami 布朗族 Bulang 否 No
上回落村 Shanghuiluo 瑶族 Yao 否 No
尚勇 Shangyong 尚冈村 Shanggang 傣族 Dai 否 No
井冈村 Jinggang 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
王四龙村 Wangsilong 布朗族 Bulang 否 No
瑶区 Yaoqu 竜(龙)巴河小寨 Longbahe 瑶族 Yao 是 Yes
关累 Guanlei 回库村 Huiku 苗族、哈尼族 Miao, Hani 否 No
红毛树村 Hongmaoshu 哈尼族 Hani 是 Yes
盘新龙寨 Panxinlong 哈尼族 Hani 否 No
易武 Yiwu 易武集市 Yiwu Market 瑶族 Yao 是 Yes
象明 Xiangming / 彝族 Yi 是 Yes
勐海
Menghai
打洛 Daluo 打洛农贸市场 Daluo Market 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
勐阿 Menga 城子村 Chengzi 傣族 Dai 否 No
嘎赛村 Gasai 傣族 Dai 否 No
曼短 Manduan 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
勐遮 Mengzhe 小旧笼 Xiaojiulong 汉族 Han 否 No
星火山村 Xinghuoshan 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
佤族寨 Wazu 佤族 Wa 否 No
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