生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 698-703.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019089

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    

中国重点保护物种名录、标准与管理

蒋志刚1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-19 接受日期:2019-06-08 出版日期:2019-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚 E-mail:jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA19050204);国家科技部重点基础性专项(2013FY110300);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503303)

China’s key protected species lists, their criteria and management

Jiang Zhigang1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-03-19 Accepted:2019-06-08 Online:2019-06-20
  • Contact: Jiang Zhigang E-mail:jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn

中国野生动物保护名录包括《国家重点保护野生动物名录》(简称《国家重点保护名录》)、《具有重要生态、科学和社会价值的陆生野生动物名录》》(简称《三有名录》)和地方重点保护野生动物名录(简称地方重点保护名录)。2017年《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》修订实施后, 《国家重点保护名录》修订工作提上日程。修订《国家重点保护名录》应明确该名录与《三有名录》之间的关系, 前者要突出重点, 体现保护优先和方便管理的原则, 划分中央和地方的保护责任。建议依据物种的濒危属性、特有属性、稀有属性、珍贵属性以及管理属性来确定重点保护野生动物物种的级别。保护名录可以采取将整个属、整个科等较高的分类阶元集体列入原则(Principle of Clump Listing)。当一个亚种、一个种群有显著的进化潜力和确定的分布区时, 也可以应用拆分列入原则(Principle of Splitting Listing), 将其作为管理单位列入物种保护名单。此外, 还应密切跟踪并及时更新物种分类法的变化、制订保护级别的判定标准、编写物种恢复计划指南、制定《国家重点保护名录》修订程序。建议为每一个重点保护物种制定相应的种群和生境恢复计划。根据珍稀濒危野生动物动态管理的需要, 通过定期评估, 及时对列入名录的物种进行升级、降级、删除或维持现有保护等级等处理。

关键词: 物种保护, 保护物种名录, 名录标准, 集体列入原则, 拆分列入原则

China’s key protected species lists include the List of State Key Protected Wild Animals (LSKPWA), the List of Terrestrial Wildlife with Important Ecological, Scientific and Social Values, and the lists of local key protected wild animals. After the amendment and implementation of the Wild Animal Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China in 2017, the revision of the LSKPWA is on the agenda. In order to revise the list of the state key protected species, the relationship between these lists should be delineated to reflect the priority of protection and to facilitate administration and to divide the responsibility of protection between the central and local governments. It is recommended to determine the level of key protected wildlife species according to their attributes of endangerment, endemism, rareness, preciousness and management requirement. By adopting the Principle of Clump Listing, related species or the higher taxa such as a whole genus even a whole family should be included in the lists of protected species as far as possible. It is also practical to list a subspecies or a population as a management unit on the species protection list. In addition, to reflect the new provisions of the amended Wild Animal Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China, it is necessary to distinguish domesticated and wild populations, those populations which have been artificially successfully bred with mature technology and stable production traits should be exempted from the listing. Thus, using the Principle of Splitting Listing to solve the real problems in conservation. In addition, taxonomic changes should be closely tracked and species list should be updated in time. It is also necessary to formulate criteria for protection levels, to develop guidelines for species recovery plan after their listing and to design amendment procedure for the list. It is important to formulate populations and habitats recovery plan for each key protected species. Through periodic evaluation of the listed species, the listed species are upgraded, downgraded, deleted or maintain its status for the needs of dynamic management of rare and endangered wild animals.

Key words: species conservation, protected species list, criteria of key protected species, Principle of Clump Listing, Principle of Splitting Listing

图1

《国家重点保护名录》、地方重点保护名录和《三有名录》的集合关系。图中用集合表示保护名录。部分省级重点保护名录与《国家重点保护名录》、《三有名录》有重叠(A), 多数省级重点保护名录仅与《三有名录》有重叠(B)。事实上, 有重要生态、科学、社会价值是陆生野生动物的共同属性, 三个名录存在着一定的交集(C)。《国家重点保护名录》、《三有名录》和地方重点保护名录应是不同的集合(D)。"

图2

国家与地方重点保护名录之间的集合关系。重要生态、科学、社会价值是陆生野生动物的共同属性, 国家与地方重点保护名录足以区分保护重点。图中三角形的顶点指向保护重要性增加方向。"

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