生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 708-715.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019073

• 生物多样性相关传统知识专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

生物多样性相关传统知识的国际保护及中国应对策略

张渊媛()   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-13 接受日期:2019-05-06 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 张渊媛
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查与评估(2019)

China’s strategy for incorporating traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity into international multi-lateral agreements

Zhang Yuanyuan()   

  1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2019-03-13 Accepted:2019-05-06 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-08-20
  • Contact: Zhang Yuanyuan

摘要:

数个国际多边协定、政府间组织和机构都涉及生物多样性相关的传统知识, 包括《生物多样性公约》(CBD)、关于遗传资源获取与惠益分享的《名古屋议定书》(NP)、《粮食和农业植物遗传资源国际条约》(ITPGRFA)、世界知识产权组织(WIPO)、世贸组织下的《与贸易相关的知识产权协定》(WTO/TRIPS)以及生物多样性与生态系统服务政府间科学-政策平台(IPBES)等。然而, 各个国际文书所界定的传统知识内涵和外延却有所区别和侧重。中国是生物多样性极为丰富的多民族大国, 各族人民在数千年的生产和生活实践中创造了丰富的与保护和持续利用生物遗传资源相关的传统知识、创新和实践做法。作为多个相关国际公约或协定的缔约方, 中国应厘清各相关国际公约或协定中生物多样性相关传统知识的内涵、保护目标及国际义务, 加强国家在履行相关国际公约或协定过程中的协同增效, 从而在相关传统知识的国际谈判中统一立场, 维护国家及地方社区利益。本文系统梳理了各相关国际多边协定、组织和机构对于传统知识的界定, 以及国际多边体系在保护遗传资源相关传统知识方面的工作, 根据中国遗传资源相关传统知识的现状和已有的措施, 结合当前履行国际多边协定的大背景, 提出了促进中国生物多样性相关传统知识保护的5项具体建议, 包括: (1)采取立法、行政和政策措施; (2)加强相关研究, 强化技术支撑; (3)加强传统知识保护的能力建设; (4)在国内履约过程中, 强化传统知识相关工作的协调; (5)在国际层面上加强中国传统知识的宣传力度。

关键词: 国际多边协定, 生物多样性, 遗传资源, 传统知识, 中国策略

Abstract:

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its Nagoya Protocol (NP) on Access and Benefit Sharing, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the World Trade Organization’s Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (WTO/TRIPS), and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) all incorporate biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to some extent. However, the definitions and implications are not unified and their focuses are different. China is a multi-ethnic country blessed with mega-biodiversity. Throughout history, Chinese people have developed systems of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices that are relevant to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. As a party to multiple international agreements concerning associated traditional knowledge, China is responsible to provide in-depth understanding and definitions of the relevant agreements for traditional knowledge. The country’s international obligations under these agreements are to promote synergies on traditional knowledge and to deliver a unified voice in international negotiations, so as to better defend the interests of the country and the local communities. We explored a variety of definitions of biodiversity associated traditional knowledge within relevant multi-lateral agreements, organizations and international bodies. We then summarized the progress being made by the international system in this regard, and proposed five specific countermeasures for China to deal with the issue of biodiversity associated traditional knowledge in negotiating and implementing those agreements. This was done while taking into account the status and features of China’s associated traditional knowledge system, the existing policies and measures. These include: (1) Take legislative, administrative and policy action; (2) Strengthen relevant research in order to improve technical support; (3) Strengthen capacity building regarding protection of traditional knowledge; (4) Strengthen coordination with other international agreements concerning traditional knowledge during implementation; (5) Step up publicity efforts in international forums, to promote China’s traditional knowledge.

Key words: International multi-lateral agreements, biodiversity, genetic resources, traditional knowledge, China’s strategy