生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (8): 896-902.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019022

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小兴安岭两种林地的黏菌物种多样性

赵凤云1, 李玉1, TomHsiang2, 刘淑艳1, *()   

  1. 1. 吉林农业大学食药用菌教育部工程研究中心, 长春 130118, 中国
    2. Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph N1G 2W1, Ontario, Canada
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-28 接受日期:2019-04-25 出版日期:2019-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘淑艳 E-mail:liussyan@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    科技部科技基础性工作专项(2014FY210400);高等学校学科创新引智计划(D17014)

Species diversity of myxomycetes in two forests of the Lesser Khinggan Mountains, China

Fengyun Zhao1, Yu Li1, Tom Hsiang2, Shuyan Liu1, *()   

  1. 1. Engineering Research Center of Chinese Ministry of Education for Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
    2. Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph N1G 2W1, Ontario, Canada
  • Received:2019-01-28 Accepted:2019-04-25 Online:2019-08-20
  • Contact: Liu Shuyan E-mail:liussyan@163.com

黏菌广泛分布于森林生态系统中, 并在生态系统的物质循环过程中发挥重要的功能。为了探讨黏菌在小兴安岭森林中的物种多样性及其分布, 本文对该地区的汤旺河兴安石林森林公园和胜山国家级自然保护区系统开展黏菌多样性调查研究。在2个地区共采集黏菌标本248份, 基于形态学特征共鉴定出4目8科17属44种黏菌, 其中Craterium dictyosporum、垂头绒泡菌(Physarum album)和Reticularia splendens var. jurana等10个种为黑龙江省首次报道。多样性分析结果显示, 汤旺河兴安石林森林公园针阔混交林的黏菌物种多样性(36种)高于胜山国家级自然保护区红松(Pinus koraiensis)林内的黏菌物种多样性(25种), 其中两地间共有的黏菌有17种, 黏菌物种组成的相似性(CS)为55.7%。绿绒泡菌(Physarum viride)是针阔混交林内的优势种, 蛇形半网菌(Hemitrichia serpula)是红松林内的优势种。研究结果表明植被类型对黏菌的物种组成和多样性有着重要的影响。

关键词: 黏菌纲, 绒泡菌目, 新记录, 分类学

Myxomycetes are widely distributed in forest ecosystems and play an important role in nutrient cycling. The diversity and distribution of myxomycetes in two forests of the Lesser Khinggan Mountains, China were examined in Tangwanghexing’anshilin Forest Park and Shengshan National Nature Reserve. A total of 248 samples of myxomycetes were collected and identified to 44 species belonging to 17 genera of eight families in four orders based on morphological characteristics. Ten new species were recorded in Heilongjiang Province, such as Craterium dictyosporum, Physarum album and Reticularia splendens var. jurana. The species diversity of myxomycetes was higher in Tangwanghexing’anshilin Forest Park (36 species) than in Shengshan National Nature Reserve (25 species). Among the 44 species, 17 species were found in both sites and the composition similarity (CS) was 55.7%. Physarum viride was the most dominant species in mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests. Hemitrichia serpula was the most dominant species in Pinus koraiensis forest. This study suggests that vegetation type has an important influence on the species composition and diversity of myxomycetes.

Key words: Myxomycetes, Physarales, new record, taxonomy

表1

汤旺河兴安石林森林公园和胜山国家级自然保护区44种黏菌相对多度"


Genus
种名
Species
相对多度 Relative abundance (%)
汤旺河 Tangwanghe 胜山 Shengshan
线膜菌属 Reticularia Reticularia splendens var. jurana* 4.92 2.38
筛菌属 Cribraria 灯笼菌 Cribraria cancellatum var. cancellatum 2.46 -
锈红筛菌Cribraria ferruginea* 0.82 -
皱杯筛菌 Cribraria personii* 0.82 -
紫筛菌 Cribraria purpurea 1.34 -
粉瘤菌属 Lycogala 粉瘤菌 Lycogala epidendrum 7.34 11.11
小粉瘤菌 Lycogala exiguum 1.34 1.59
筒菌属 Tubifera 筒菌 Tubifera ferruginosa* 3.28 -
双皮菌属 Diderma 球形双皮菌 Diderma globosum 0.82 -
钙皮菌属 Didymium 小钙皮菌 Didymium minus* 0.82 -
鳞钙皮菌 Didymium squamulosum 2.46 0.79
高杯菌属 Craterium Craterium dictyosporum* 1.34 3.17
白头高杯菌 Craterium leucocephalum - 1.59
高杯菌 Craterium minutum 1.34 -
煤绒菌属 Fuligo 煤绒菌 Fuligo septica - 1.59
光果菌属 Leocarpus 光果菌 Leocarpus fragilis 0.82 0.79
绒泡菌属 Physarum 垂头绒泡菌 Physarum album* 6.56 3.97
两瓣绒泡菌 Physarum bivalve 0.82 -
灰绒泡菌 Physarum cinereum 0.82 0.79
全白绒泡菌 Physarum globuliferum - 2.38
淡黄绒泡菌 Physarum melleum - 0.79
小绒泡菌 Physarum pusillum - 1.59
绿绒泡菌 Physarum viride 17.21 3.97
发网菌属 Stemonitis 锈发网菌 Stemonitis axifera 6.56 -
褐发网菌 Stemonitis fusca 3.28 -
草生发网菌 Stemonitis herbatica 1.34 -
美发网菌 Stemonitis splendens 0.82 1.59
拟发网菌属 Stemonitopsis 香蒲拟发网菌 Stemonitopsis typhina 2.46 -
被网菌属 Arcyodes Arcyodes incarnate* 0.82 -
团网菌属 Arcyria 灰团网菌 Arcyria cinerea 9 7.14
锈色团网菌 Arcyria ferruginea - 0.79
瑞士团网菌 Arcyria helvetica* 3.28 0.79
小红团网菌 Arcyria minuta - 0.79
朦纹团网菌 Arcyria stipata - 5.56
变毛菌属 Metatrichia 暗红变毛菌 Metatrichia vesparium 1.34 10.32
半网菌属 Hemitrichia 细柄半网菌 Hemitrichia calyculata 3.28 3.17
棒形半网菌 Hemitrichia clavata 0.82 1.59
蛇形半网菌 Hemitrichia serpula 0.82 16.28
团毛菌属 Trichia 光丝团毛菌 Trichia affinis* 1.34 15.08
栗褐团毛菌 Trichia botrytis 0.82 -
长尖团毛菌 Trichia decipiens 3.28 -
网孢团毛菌 Trichia favoginea 1.34 -
环壁团毛菌 Trichia varia 0.82 -
疣壁团毛菌 Trichia verrucosa 0.82 -

图1

10个黑龙省新记录种的形态特征组图。a1-a3: Reticularia splendens var. jurana; b1-b3: 筒菌; c1-c3: Cribraria persoonii; d1-d3: 锈红筛菌; e1-e3: Arcyodes incarnata; f1-f3: 瑞士团网菌; g1-g3: Trichia affinis; h1-h3: Craterium dictyosporum; i1-i3: 小钙皮菌; j1-j3: 垂头绒泡菌。标尺: a1, h1 = 5 mm; b1, f1 = 2 mm; c1, g1, i1, j1= 1 mm; d1, e1 = 0.5 mm; b2, h2 = 50 μm; c2 = 25 μm; h3 = 5 μm; 其他 = 10 μm。"

表2

红松林(胜山)和针阔混交林(汤旺河)两种林型内黏菌物种数、相对多度和物种多样性指数"


Order
红松林 Pinus koraiensis forest 针阔混交林 Mixed forest
科数
No. of family
属数
No. of genus
种数
No. of species
科数
No. of family
属数
No. of genus
种数
No. of species
无丝菌目 Liceales 2 2 3 3 4 8
绒泡菌目 Physarales 2 5 11 2 5 10
发网菌目 Stemonitales 1 1 1 1 2 5
团毛菌目 Trichiales 2 4 10 2 5 13
合计 Total 7 12 25 8 16 36
相对多度 Relative abundance 56.82% 81.82%
Shannon-Wiener指数 Shannon-Wiener index 2.72 3.06

图2

红松林和针阔混交林两种林型内黏菌物种组成对比的韦恩图"

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