生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 88-96.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018203

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于保护地役权的自然保护地适应性管理方法探讨: 以钱江源国家公园体制试点区为例

王宇飞1, 苏红巧1, 赵鑫蕊1, 苏杨1, 罗敏2, *()   

  1. 1 国务院发展研究中心, 管理世界杂志社, 北京 100026
    2 环境保护杂志社, 北京 100062
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-30 接受日期:2018-10-10 出版日期:2019-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 罗敏 E-mail:luomian198918@126.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(17ZDA058)和国务院发展研究中心力拓基金

Conservation easement-inspired adaptive management methods for natural protected areas: A case study on Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot

Wang Yufei1, Su Hongqiao1, Zhao Xinrui1, Su Yang1, Luo Min2, *()   

  1. 1 Management World Magazine, Development Research Center of the State Council, Beijing 100026
    2 Environmental Protection Magazine, Beijing 100062
  • Received:2018-07-30 Accepted:2018-10-10 Online:2019-01-20
  • Contact: Luo Min E-mail:luomian198918@126.com

我国的自然保护地普遍存在着科学管控难、统一管理难和资金供给难等问题, 即便是国家公园体制试点区也不例外。本文以钱江源国家公园体制试点区为例, 设计了基于细化保护需求的保护地役权制度, 以探索一种能解决上述问题并能体现生态补偿的适应性管理方法, 包括: 细化主要保护对象的管理需求, 结合土地利用类型, 确定实施保护地役权的空间范围; 辨析保护需求和原住民生产、生活之间的关系, 形成正负行为的准则并以行为清单的形式体现; 从生态系统监测指标改善情况、正负行为遵守情况和社区能力建设三个维度制定地役权制度的评价方法; 据此形成地役权合同, 明确供役地人和需役地人的权责利, 形成考虑保护绩效的生态补偿方案。这种方法可以解决自然保护地因为权属不一致造成的生态系统和景观破碎化问题, 缓解社区发展和生态保护之间的矛盾, 在我国南方集体林地占比较高的自然保护地具有适用性。

关键词: 生态补偿, 适应性管理, 保护地役权, 自然保护地, 国家公园

It is difficult to carry out highly effective management in the natural protected areas of China due to complicated land ownership and lack of scientific research, especially in the National Park pilots. This paper proposes a conservation easement policy based on focused conservation needs by integrating an innovative adaptive management method and an ecological compensation plan, using the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot as an example. First, the major conservation needs of the ecosystem elements are refined by determining the spatial scope of the easement implementation according to the land type. Secondly, the relationship between conservation need and the livelihood of local residents is clarified to form the classified conservation list. The evaluation method for easement is designed in three dimensions: improvement of monitoring indicators of the ecosystem, compliance with positive and negative actions and community capacity cultivation. Finally, the easement contract is formed by outlining the clear rights and responsibilities of the easement donor and donee. A scientific and flexible plan for ecological compensation is also carried out. This method can effectively solve the problem of land resource fragmentation at both on the ecosystem and landscape scale, which is normally caused by inconsistent ownership, as well as the conflict between community development and ecological conservation. Finally, this plan can be applied to the natural protected areas in southern China where the collective forest coverage is relatively high.

Key words: ecological compensation, adaptive management, conservation easement, natural protected areas, national park

图1

以地役权制度为基础的适应性管理框架"

图2

结合我国实际的地役权制度生态补偿方案的设计思路。Biodiversity-offset即生物多样性中和, 主要是指工程项目等的实施在采取一定的手段后对生态系统多样性的影响非负。"

表1

钱江源国家公园重点村落的基本情况"

乡镇
Town
自然村
Natural village
人口
Population
分区
Zone
主要产业
Major industry
核心保护对象
Core conservation targets
苏庄 Suzhuang 龙潭口 Longtankou 118 核心保护区 Core protected zone 茶叶、油茶
Tea and sasanqua
生态系统、水源
Ecosystem and water sources
东山 Dongshan 106 生态保育区
Ecological conservation zone
茶叶、油茶
Tea and sasanqua
生态系统、水源
Ecosystem and water sources
外长坑头 Waichangkengtou 80 核心保护区 Core protected zone 茶叶、农作物
Tea and crops
生态系统 Ecosystem
内长坑头 Neichangkengtou 6 核心保护区 Core protected zone 茶叶、农作物
Tea and crops
生态系统 Ecosystem
青安塘 Qing’antang 24 生态保育区
Ecological conservation zone
茶叶 Tea 生态系统 Ecosystem
冲凹 Chong’ao 6 核心保护区 Core protected zone 茶叶、养蜂
Tea and beekeeping
生态系统 Ecosystem
岭里头 Linglitou 2 核心保护区 Core protected zone 生态系统 Ecosystem
齐溪 Qixi 大鲍山 Dabaoshan 79 核心保护区 Core protected zone 生态系统 Ecosystem
长虹 Changhong 河滩 Hetan 99 生态保育区
Ecological conservation zone
茶叶、农作物
Tea and crops
生态系统、水源
Ecosystem and water sources

表2

钱江源国家公园原住居民对国家公园补偿的诉求"

直接补贴 Direct subsidy 社会福利 Social welfare 生计带动 Income increase
液化气补贴
Subsidies for liquefied gas
景区开发补贴
Subsidies for scenic spot development
生态公益林补贴
Subsidies for ecological forest
基本农田补贴
Subsidies for basic farmland
地役权限制和鼓励行为补贴
Subsidies for the restrictions and encouragements of easement
老人、残疾人补贴
Subsidies for old and disabled people
安装有线、无线网络
Installation of wired or wireless network
丰富娱乐活动
Diversified activities for entertainment
生产生活基础设施水平提高(垃圾处理、污水排放处理、修路等)
Improvement of production and living infrastructure (waste treatment, waste water treatment, road construction, etc.)
医疗、教育等公共服务水平提高
Improvement of public service, including medical care and education, etc.
茶叶、油茶等国家公园品牌产品
Tea, sasanqua and other products with National park brand
农家乐、农机培训、保护地管理、对森林资源开发利用、发展生态旅游等
Hotels, agricultural machinery training, protected area management, utilization of forest resources, and ecotourism, etc.

表3

原住民正负行为清单(耕地部分)a"

保护对象
Conservation targets
正/负
Positive or negative
具体行为
Specific actions
参与方式
Participant measures
环境本底、水源地和
生态系统服务
Environmental background, water source and ecosystem services
禁止
Forbidden
使用未经批准的化肥、农药、除草剂
Use of unapproved fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides
个人 Individual
使用未经发酵处理的粪便作为肥料 Use of non-fermented manure 个人 Individual
秸秆焚烧 Straw burning 个人 Individual
鼓励b
Encouragedb
合理套种, 合理密植 Reasonable inter-planting and compact planting 集体/个人
Collective /individual
立体农业 Stereoscopic agriculture 个人 Individual
物种、种群、群落和
生态系统
Species, populations, communities and ecosystems
禁止
Forbidden
驱赶、捕捉进入耕地的野生动物
Expelling or catching wild animals that entering cultivated land
个人 Individual
以围栏、栅栏等形式明确隔离耕地和自然环境
Clear separation between cultivated land and natural environment by using the fences, etc.
个人 Individual
鼓励b
Encouraged
以本土植物形成天然的隔离林带
Using local plants as the fence between natural environment and plantation
集体/个人
Collective /individual
文化遗产等原真性
Originality of cultural heritage, etc.
鼓励b
Encouragedb
保留传统农耕文化 Preserving traditional farming culture 个人 Individual
适度发展耕地景观、发展生态旅游和环境教育
Moderating development of cultivated land landscape, ecotourism and environmental education
集体 Collective

表4

钱江源国家公园森林生态系统中野生动植物多样性的部分监测指标"

分类 Category 监测指标/方式 Monitoring indicators/methods 周期 Period
野生植物监测
Wild plant monitoring
种类 Species 物种名称、数量 Name and number of species 每年2次
Twice a year
变化 Changes 无人机监测各种植被类型面积和高度的变化
Changes in areas and height of different plant types by using unmanned aerial vehicle (UVA) monitoring
野生动物监测
Wild animal monitoring
种类 Species 物种名称、数量 Name and number of species 每年2次
Twice a year
种群 Populations 分布格局 Distribution pattern
物种相对多度指数 Specie relative abundance index (RAI) 长期 Long-term
资源利用 Resource utilization 乔、灌、草植物的名称、采集地点、采集数量、利用部位、用途、交易方式
Names of arbors, shrubs and herbs, collecting location and numbers, available parts, using ways and trading ways
每月1次
Once a month
人为干扰 Human disturbance 干扰方式和强度 Disturbance mode and intensity 每年1次 Once a year

表5

钱江源国家公园地役权实施评价体系"

评价内容
Evaluation items
评价主体
Evaluation subjects
权重
Weight
评价周期
Evaluation period
评价目标
Evaluation targets
社区个人正负行为
Positive and negative individual behaviors in the community
集体对个人评估
The community evaluates individuals
30% 每年
Once a year
地役权合同中正负行为的遵守情况
Compliance to the positive and negative behaviors listed in the easement contract
社区集体正负行为
Positive and negative behaviors in the community
国家公园管理机构对社区集体评估
National park management agency evaluates the community
20% 每年
Once a year
常规监测指标评价
Routine monitoring indicator evaluation
第三方评估
The third-party evaluation
30% 每年
Once a year
生态保护效果
Ecological conservation effects
社区能力建设
Community capacity improving
第三方评估
The third-party evaluation
20% 每年
Once a year
社区能力建设效果
Community capacity improvement
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