生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 64-75.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018176

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

钱江源国家公园体制试点区农户生计资本评价及其空间特征

李双1,孙孝平1,方彦君2,张银龙1,*(),曹铭昌3,*()   

  1. 1 南京林业大学, 江苏省南方现代林业协同创新中心, 南京 210037
    2 浙江省开化县环境保护局, 浙江开化 324300
    3 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-25 接受日期:2018-10-24 出版日期:2019-01-20 发布日期:2019-03-15
  • 通讯作者: 张银龙,曹铭昌
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0507202);国家重点研发计划(2017YFC050380604);国家自然科学基金(31461143033);福建省环保科技计划项目“福建省生物多样性保护网络优化技术研究”(2017R027);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项(县市自然资源资产负债表编制技术与示范);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目

Evaluation of the spatial characteristics of farmer livelihood assets in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot

Li Shuang1,Sun Xiaoping1,Fang Yanjun2,Zhang Yinlong1,*(),Cao Mingchang3,*()   

  1. 1 Collaborative Innovation Center of Sustainable Forestry in Southern China of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    2 Kaihua Environmental Protection Bureau, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
    3 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2018-06-25 Accepted:2018-10-24 Online:2019-01-20 Published:2019-03-15
  • Contact: Zhang Yinlong,Cao Mingchang

摘要:

本研究以钱江源国家公园体制试点区(以下简称为钱江源国家公园)为例, 基于可持续生计分析框架, 构建农户生计资本评价指标体系, 运用熵权法、聚类分析和空间自相关分析, 开展钱江源国家公园农户生计资本评价, 并对其空间分布和集聚特征进行分析。结果表明: (1)不同农户类型的生计资本均值呈现非农户 > 兼业户 > 纯农户, 非农户的人力资本、社会资本和物质资本远高于兼业户和纯农户; (2)不同农户类型资产等级划分差异显著, 纯农户的中低资产较多, 非农户的高资产较多, 生计资本与生计活动类型密切相关; (3)农户生计资本总量在空间上呈现由西南向东北递增的趋势, 何田乡生计资本较为均衡, 齐溪镇、长虹乡和苏庄镇的生计资本搭配不合理; (4)不同功能区农户生计资本分布与功能定位和管理强度相关; (5)自然资本呈现显著空间自相关性, 其余资本及总量空间自相关性不显著。最后, 为改善钱江源国家公园农户生计状况提出了相关建议。

关键词: 可持续生计, 国家公园, 生计资本, 空间特征, 钱江源国家公园体制试点区

Abstract:

This paper uses the example of the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot (QNPP) to construct an indicator system of farmer livelihood assets based on the sustainable livelihoods framework. The spatial distribution and agglomeration characteristics of farmer livelihood assets in QNPP were next analyzed, and the entropy method, cluster analysis, and spatial autocorrelation analysis were performed. The results were as follows: first, the livelihood assets of different types of farmers followed a gradient of non-agricultural households > concurrent households > pure farmers. The human assets, social assets, and physical assets of non-agricultural households were more valuable than those of concurrent households and pure farmers. Second, asset classification differed significantly among the three types of farmer households. Pure farmers had a greater quantity of primarily medium and low assets, while non-agricultural households had a few higher assets. The levels of livelihood assets were closely related to livelihood activities. Third, the spatial distribution of household livelihood assets belonging to farmers highlighted an increase in asset concentration from southwest to northeast. The livelihood assets of the Hetian Township were relatively balanced among the three groups, whereas Qixi, Changhong and Suzhuang townships had imbalanced asset distributions. Fourth, the distribution of household livelihood assets was consistent with functional position and management intensity in different functional zones. In addition, natural assets were significantly spatially autocorrelated while all other assets had no significant spatial autocorrelation. Finally, based on these findings, suggestions were made to improve the livelihoods of the farmer households in the QNPP.

Key words: sustainable livelihoods, national parks, livelihood asset, spatial characteristics, Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot