生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (2): 210-216.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017311

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    

社区为主体的保护: 对三江源国家公园生态管护公益岗位的思考

赵翔1, 朱子云1, 2, 吕植1, 2, *, 肖凌云1, 2, 梅索南措1, 王昊2   

  1. 1 .山水自然保护中心, 北京 100871
    2 .北京大学生命科学学院自然保护与社会发展研究中心, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-20 接受日期:2018-02-20 出版日期:2018-04-02
  • 通讯作者: 吕植
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

An observation to the new initiative of community conservation guard posts in the pilot Three-River-Source National Park

Xiang Zhao1, Ziyun Zhu1, 2, Zhi Lu1, 2, *, Lingyun Xiao1, 2, Sonamtso Mei1, Hao Wang2   

  1. 1 Shanshui Conservation Center, Beijing 100871
    2 Center for Nature and Society, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2017-11-20 Accepted:2018-02-20 Online:2018-04-02
  • Contact: Lu Zhi
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

社区参与是实现生物多样性保护目标的重要途径, 也是我国国家公园建设的重要组成部分。青海省三江源国家公园在前期试点中设置了16621个生态管理公益岗位, 当地牧民因此成为三江源保护的主要力量。本文通过对三江源地区已进行的生态管理公益岗位的调研发现, 由于传统文化和环保宣传的影响, 三江源当地藏族牧民具有较高的保护环境意识和参与保护行动的强烈愿望, 生态公益岗位是对这种愿望的良好回应。但在实践中, 因为需要兼顾提升生态保护成效、提升牧民收入、扶贫等多重目标, 生态管护员的选拔、管理、考核等并未按照最大化保护成效的方式进行。国家公园试点村中, 生态管护员全部由贫困户担任的方式, 实质上是将完成扶贫目标摆在了完成自然保护目标之前。这样的选择方式有着深刻的制度根源。为了进一步提升国家公园内生态公益岗位的保护成效, 我们认为应当明确生态管理公益岗位的定位, 明确提升保护成效是第一位的任务; 应当改进现有体制, 使基层政府有更多资源和空间组织管护工作, 并增加社区的参与程度。在这一过程中, 有民间机构参与的广阔空间。

关键词: 三江源, 国家公园, 社区参与式保护, 生态公益岗位

Community-based conservation has been proven as an effective approach for biodiversity conservation, and is an important part for National Parks in China. As the first pilot of the new national park system in China, the Three-River-Source National Park initiated a new arrangement to employ 16,621 villagers from each household living in the national park to serve as conservation guards. Local Tibetan herders take the main responsibility of Sanjiangyuan conservation and in return receive payments from the national park. Such an arrangement coincides with local people’s willingness of participating in conservation, influenced by traditional Tibetan Buddhist culture. However, in addition to conservation, poverty alleviation is set as a priority target especially when guards were selected, which to certain extent compromised the effectiveness of conservation. While understanding the needs of poverty alleviation, we analyzed institutional rationales of such a selection, and made policy suggestions that conservation targets should become the first priority and more resources and space should be allocated to local governments and communities for self-governance on conservation decisions and actions. NGOs may also contribute to assist these practices.

Key words: Three-River-Source region, national park, community-based conservation, community conservation guard posts

图1

三江源牧民认为参与生态保护最需要的支持(N = 90)"

表1

三江源国家公园内部分村牧民向城镇移民情况"

乡镇
Township

Villages
总户数
Number
of households
总人口
Population
留居户数
Households
living in rangeland
留居人口
Population
living in rangeland
搬迁率
Ratio of
immigration to towns
治多县索加乡
(长江源园区)
Suojia Township
君曲村 Junqu 362 1,206 183 688 49%
牙曲村 Yaqu 579 1,902 440 1,433 24%
莫曲村 Moqu 303 1,327 119 357 61%
当曲村 Dangqu 306 1,422 276 750 10%
曲麻莱县曲麻河乡
(长江源园区)
Qumar River
勒池村 Lechi 284 1,112 250 989 12%
多秀村 Duoxiu 374 1,160 307 911 18%
措池村 Cuochi 461 1,588 227 782 51%
昂拉村 Angla 381 1,301 326 1,147 14%
杂多县扎青乡
(澜沧江源园区)
Zhaqing Township
地青村 Diqing 544 2,043 326 1,142 40%
格赛村 Gesai 416 1,653 146 711 65%
昂闹村 Angnao 358 1,308 161 564 55%
达清村 Daqing 408 1,447 59 205 86%
总计 Total 4,776 17,469 2,820 9,679 40%
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