生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (1): 96-104.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017293

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    

日本演习林制度对中国生物多样性保护与国家公园建设的启示

徐诗涛1, 宋希强1, 凌鹏1, 陈元君2, 任明迅1*()   

  1. 1 海南大学热带农林学院, 环南海陆域生物多样性研究中心, 海口 570228
    2 日本东京大学农学与生命科学研究生院, 东京 113-8657
  • 收稿日期:2017-10-30 接受日期:2018-01-05 出版日期:2018-01-27
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31660229, 31670230)

The University Forests of Japan and implications for biodiversity conservation and national park development in China

Shitao Xu1, Xiqiang Song1, Peng Ling1, Yuanjun Chen2, Mingxun Ren1, *()   

  1. 1 Research Center for Terrestrial Biodiversity of South China Sea, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University,Haikou 570228
    2 Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 Japan
  • Received:2017-10-30 Accepted:2018-01-05 Online:2018-01-27
  • Contact: Ren Mingxun E-mail:renmx@hainu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

演习林是日本通过农林院校管辖和运行的自然林地与人工林, 兼具科教、生物多样性保护、生态旅游与林木生产等功能。演习林的责、权、利明确, 能够实现长期、稳定的保护与利用, 与自然保护区、国家公园既有区别又相辅相成, 是日本经济协调发展与快速实现生态恢复的一个重要保障。目前, 日本约有30所高等院校拥有演习林, 演习林面积约占日本森林总面积的5‰, 其中东京大学的演习林建立最早、运行与管理机制最为完善。演习林主要有三大功能: 教学实践、科学研究、社会服务。演习林主要负责人是大学教师, 教师既参与科教也参与管理, 实现了教授治校、科教与社会服务的协调发展。当前, 我国正处于生物多样性保护的转型期和国家公园试点建设的关键阶段, 农林类高校或研究所可借鉴日本演习林制度, 主动参与到国家“绿水青山就是金山银山”的绿色发展理念和实践中; 涉及生物学与农林学科的科学工作者应积极承担当地自然保护区、森林公园、国家公园等的建设与管护。政府可以引导和吸纳有着充足研究经费、学术水平较高的农林与生物学类高校(特别是相关学科被列入“世界一流学科”建设行列的高校)在有条件的自然保护区或城市周边开辟高校直辖林地, 实现教学实践、研究与保护、社会服务等共建共存模式, 提升我国高校农林与生物学科研究水平, 促进我国生物多样性的可持续保护和国家公园的高标准建设。

关键词: 实验林, 保护生物学, 国家公园, 自然教育

The University Forests of Japan are the forests and woodlands belonging to a university, which are established mainly for undergraduate education, scientific research, biodiversity conservation, and sometimes ecological tourism and wood production. Such systems of university forests are an important base for environmental protection and economic growth in Japan due to long-term stable conservation and utilization, resulting from clear responsibility, rights, and benefits. Currently, there are 30 universities that have university forests. In 1894, the University of Tokyo was the first university to set up a university forest. There are three main roles of a typical university forest, including agricultural and forestry education and practice, scientific research, and social service. University professors act as managers in charge of the university forest, and are engaged in both teaching and study, as well as management of the forest and determining how to open the forest to the public. Therefore, university forests can be a key platform for uniting education, research, conservation, and tourism. Such university forest systems help professors and the public to understand each other better and allow the public to get involved in biodiversity conservation. Currently, China is developing sustainable biodiversity conservation and national parks, therefore universities, especially those with agricultural and forestry colleges, should consider co-opting the university forest system utilized in Japan. Universities and professors should participate in the establishment and management of local nature reserves, national parks, city parks, or relatively isolated woodlands in these regions. When universities are engaged with the forest system, nature reserves, or national parks, academic knowledge and student participation can be of vital significance for the sustainable conservation of biodiversity and development of national parks in China.

Key words: Experimental forest, conservation biology, national park, nature education

图1

日本主要的演习林(黑体为东京大学的演习林)(修改自National Committee of University Forests in Japan (2014)。地名的英文对照见附录1)"

图2

东京大学演习林组织结构图"

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