生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 945-950.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017181

• 植物园定位与发展战略专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

植物园与植物回归

任海*()   

  1. 中国科学院华南植物园广东省应用植物学重点实验室, 广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-16 接受日期:2017-09-17 出版日期:2017-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 任海 E-mail:renhai@scib.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC1403002)和中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项(XDA13020500)

The role of botanical gardens in reintroduction of plants

Hai Ren*()   

  1. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2017-06-16 Accepted:2017-09-17 Online:2017-09-20
  • Contact: Ren Hai E-mail:renhai@scib.ac.cn

为了有效保护珍稀濒危植物, 植物园在迁地保护过程中开始关注迁地保护和野外回归相结合, 其拥有的活植物资源、知识、技能和设施可为植物回归提供重要支撑。早期的植物回归实践注重用园艺手段增加种苗存活率, 后来强调了种群恢复, 并把植物回归放到生态系统恢复的背景下考虑, 近几年则强调了全球变化背景下的植物回归。目前, 全世界植物园的回归研究和实践进展主要集中在影响回归植株定居的因素、回归的遗传多样性、全球变化对回归的影响和成功回归的标准等四方面。在人类干扰和全球变化情景下, 植物园需要综合考虑就地保护、迁地保护和回归三位一体的综合保育体系, 以实现植物多样性的有效保护。

关键词: 植物回归, 植物园, 珍稀濒危植物, 全球变化

In order to effectively protect rare and endangered plants, botanical gardens have moved from ex situ conservation to the combination of ex situ conservation and reintroduction. Its living collections, knowledge, skills, and facilities can be used in the process of plant reintroduction. Early plant reintroduction practices have focused on increasing the survival rate of seedlings or seeds by means of horticulture, and later emphasized population recovery and plant reintroduction in the context of ecosystem restoration. In recent years, emphasis has been placed on plant reintroduction in the context of global change. Nowadays, plant reintroduction research and practice at botanical gardens is mainly focused on factors affecting reintroduced individuals, genetic diversity associated with reintroduction, the impacts of global change on reintroduction, and the criteria for successful reintroduction. With human disturbance and global change, botanical gardens need to take into account integrating in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, and reintroduction to effectively protect plant diversity.

Key words: plant reintroduction, botanical gardens, rare and endangered plants, global change

表1

中国植物园开展的植物回归案例"

植物种类 Species 单位 Institution
仙湖苏铁 Cycas fairylakea 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
水松 Glyptostrobus pensilis 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
观光木 Tsoongiodendron odorum 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
猪血木 Euryodendron excelsum 中国科学院华南植物园和云南大学 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan University
丹霞梧桐 Firmiana danxiaensis 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
四药门花 Tetrathyrium subcordatum 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
报春苣苔 Primulina tabacum 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
长梗木莲 Manglietia longipedunculata 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
虎颜花 Tigridiopalma magnifica 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
伯乐树 Bretscheneidera sinensis 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
杜鹃红山茶 Camellia azalea 中国科学院华南植物园 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
德保苏铁 Cycas debaoensis 深圳市中国科学院仙湖植物园 Fairylake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen & Chinese Academy of Sciences
景宁木兰 Magnolia sinostellata 深圳市中国科学院仙湖植物园 Fairylake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen & Chinese Academy of Sciences
疏花水柏枝 Myricaria laxiflora 中国科学院武汉植物园 Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
荷叶铁线蕨 Adiantum nelumboides 中国科学院武汉植物园 Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
麻栗坡兜兰 Paphiopedilum malipoense 中国科学院昆明植物园 Kunming Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
三棱栎 Trigonobalanus doichangensis 中国科学院昆明植物园 Kunming Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
漾濞槭 Acer yangbiense 中国科学院昆明植物园 Kunming Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
白旗兜兰 Paphiopedilum spicerianum 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
凤蝶兰 Papilionanthe teres 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
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