生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1085-1094.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017148

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

北热带喀斯特季节性雨林土壤和6个常见树种
凋落物的C、N、P化学计量学特征

郭屹立1, 2, 李冬兴1, 2, 王斌1, 2, 白坤栋1, 2, 向悟生1, 2, 李先琨1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所广西喀斯特植物保育与恢复生态学重点实验室, 广西桂林 541006
    2 广西友谊关森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 广西凭祥 532699
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-17 接受日期:2017-10-16 出版日期:2017-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 李先琨 E-mail:xiankunli@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31500342, 31660130)、广西重点研发计划项目(桂科AB16380256)、广西自然科学基金(2015GXNSFBA139050)和中国科学院西部之光项目(人字﹝2014〕91号)

C, N and P stoichiometric characteristics of soil and litter fall for six common tree species in a northern tropical karst seasonal rainforest in Nonggang, Guangxi, southern China

Yili Guo1, 2, Dongxing Li1, 2, Bin Wang1, 2, Kundong Bai1, 2, Wusheng Xiang1, 2, Xiankun Li1, 2, *   

  1. 1 Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    2 Guangxi Youyiguan Forest Ecosystem National Research Station, Pingxiang, Guangxi 532699
  • Received:2017-05-17 Accepted:2017-10-16 Online:2017-10-20
  • Contact: Li Xiankun E-mail:xiankunli@163.com

凋落物是森林生态系统的有机质和养分储藏库, 是土壤和植物间物质交换的枢纽, 是森林土壤肥力的主要来源之一。本文选取弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林15 ha森林动态监测样地中布设的90个凋落物收集器自2014年3月至2015年2月收集的6个常见种的凋落叶, 结合2014年7月沿海拔梯度(185-368 m)采集的50个土壤样品, 研究了土壤和凋落物的C、N、P化学计量学特征及其沿海拔梯度的变化趋势。结果表明, 除P含量在高坡位及峰顶较低外, 土壤中的C、N、P含量均达到了全国第二次土壤普查分类标准中的一级水平; 土壤的C、N含量及C : P和N : P与海拔呈正比, P含量和C : N与海拔呈反比。因本文采样的海拔差异较小, 推测上述土壤养分含量与海拔的关系主要是由于微地形引起的土壤差异而不是海拔差引起的气象因子差异所致。与其他森林生态系统相比, 这6个常见种凋落叶的C、N、P含量的平均值呈现出高C和N、低P的格局; 而不同海拔凋落叶的C、N、P并未表现出类似土壤中的变化规律; 6个常见种凋落叶均表现出春季较高的C含量和夏季较高的N、P含量。虽然桂西南喀斯特季节性雨林中土壤的C、N、P含量总体水平较高, 但其单位面积内的胸高断面积之和却远低于其他森林生态系统, 表现为生物承载量较低; 受个体生长环境差异的影响, 同种凋落叶的C、N、P化学计量学特征可能会存在个体间差异。研究结果将为我国西南地区典型喀斯特生态脆弱区的生态功能恢复与植被重建提供科学依据。

关键词: 喀斯特季节性雨林, 化学计量学特征, 土壤, 凋落叶, 海拔梯度, 季节性变化

Litter fall provides organic matter and nutrients to forest ecosystems and is central to the exchange of substances between soil and plants. It plays a vital role in the maintenance of soil organic matter and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems and it is one of the main sources of soil fertility. We used litter fall data for six common tree species collected between March 2014 and February 2015 from 90 litter fall traps, and fifty soil samples collected in July 2014 along an altitudinal gradient from 185 to 368 m in a tropical karst forest in Guangxi, China. We studied the C, N and P stoichiometric characteristics of soil and litter fall, and their trends along an altitudinal gradient. Soil C and N contents were all positively associated with altitude, while P content was negatively associated with altitude. Soil C : N was negatively associated with altitude, while C : P and N : P were positively associated with altitude. Due to the narrow altitudinal range of the soil samples, we speculate that the association of soil nutrients with altitude is due to the effect of micro-topography and not a climatic effect. Apart from the higher slope and summit, the soil C, N, P contents reached the first classification level of the national criterion of soil nutrients. Compared with other forest ecosystems, we found greater C and N contents and lower P content than the average value of C, N, P contents for litter fall of six common species. There were no trends for C, N and P stoichiometric characteristics of the mixed sample of leaf litter for the six common tree species along an altitudinal gradient. The six common tree species have higher C content in spring and higher contents of N and P in summer. The per unit total basal area of trees in this forest was much lower than other forest ecosystems, indicating its low biomass stock. This study provides useful information for ecological restoration of a typical vulnerable karst ecosystem in China.

Key words: karst seasonal rainforest, stoichiometric characteristics, soil, litter fall of leaves, altitude gradient, seasonal variation

表1

弄岗15 ha森林动态监测样地6个常见种物种属性及其偏好生境"

编号 No. 种名
Species
个体数 No. of individuals 平均胸径
Mean DBH (cm)
2014年凋落量 Litter fall in 2014 (kg/ha) 偏好生境
Preferred habitat
海拔
Altitude (m)
SP1 海南椴 Diplodiscus trichosperma 1,982 6.65 425.1 上坡位 Upper slope 290.2
SP2 闭花木 Cleistanthus sumatranus 11,982 4.57 694.3 上坡位 Upper slope 279.2
SP3 广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensia 9,403 7.87 542.5 中坡位 Middle slope 253.9
SP4 苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 9,066 5.00 470.9 中坡位 Middle slope 244.1
SP5 中国无忧花 Saraca dives 194 13.67 161.3 低坡位 Lower slope 211.0
SP6 广西棋子豆 Archidendron guangxiensis 507 7.76 127.9 低坡位 Lower slope 207.9

图1

弄岗15 ha森林动态监测样地不同海拔梯度下土壤的C、N、P含量及化学计量比。■洼地; ○低坡位; ▲中坡位; □高坡位; ●峰顶。"

表2

弄岗15 ha森林动态监测样地不同生境类型土壤的C、N、P含量及化学计量比(平均值±标准误)"

生境类型 Habitat category C (g/kg) N (g/kg) P (g/kg) C : N C : P N : P
峰顶 Hilltop 141.82 ± 7.97a 9.25 ± 0.58a 0.70 ± 0.04a 15.44 ± 0.42a 207.67 ± 13.90a 13.59 ± 1.05a
高坡位 Upper slope 121.01 ± 8.38b 7.77 ± 0.45ab 0.79 ± 0.08a 15.93 ± 1.33a 159.75 ± 13.30b 10.70 ± 1.16ab
中坡位 Middle slope 103.56 ± 6.69c 6.63 ± 0.36b 1.18 ± 0.102ab 15.65 ± 0.56a 93.332 ± 9.10c 6.00 ± 0.58b
低坡位 Lower slope 103.66 ± 4.67c 6.32 ± 0.37b 1.67 ± 0.11b 16.59 ± 0.56a 63.57 ± 3.818d 3.87 ± 0.26c
洼地 Depression 90.38 ± 6.68d 5.26 ± 0.38c 2.40 ± 0.19c 17.54 ± 1.25ab 40.77 ± 4.96e 2.32 ± 0.25cd

表3

弄岗15 ha森林动态监测样地6个常见种凋落物的C、N、P含量及化学计量比(平均值±标准误)"

物种 Species C (g/kg) N(g/kg) P (g/kg) C : N C : P N : P
海南椴 Diplodiscus trichosperma 586.24 ± 47.25b 16.37 ± 2.71b 0.63 ± 0.11c 36.43 ± 1.33b 941.69 ± 34.37b 26.12 ± 1.21b
闭花木 Cleistanthus sumatranus 624.66 ± 32.53a 13.30 ± 4.47c 0.41 ± 0.08cd 50.71 ± 3.70a 1,582.98 ± 92.82a 32.32 ± 2.08b
广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensia 581.99 ± 56.14b 20.42 ± 3.06a 1.08 ± 0.15ab 28.88 ± 1.09c 545 ± 23.32c 18.97 ± 0.70c
苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 578.50 ± 33.51b 16.31 ± 2.06b 1.23 ± 0.27a 36.04 ± 1.58b 501.37 ± 39.61c 13.84 ± 0.77d
中国无忧花 Saraca dives 578.49 ± 19.74b 13.94 ± 2.23bc 1.33 ± 0.31a 42.64 ± 2.34ab 450.20 ± 23.11c 10.87 ± 0.81d
广西棋子豆 Archidendron guangxiensis 649.00 ± 51.29a 21.24 ± 2.54a 0.48 ± 0.08cd 31.00 ± 1.31c 1,397.22 ± 88.93a 45.10 ± 2.02a

图2

弄岗15 ha森林动态监测样地6个常见树种凋落物的C、N、P 含量及化学计量比(平均值±标准误差)。物种编号见表1。"

表4

弄岗15 ha森林动态监测样地不同季节6个常见种的凋落物C、N、P含量及化学计量比(平均值±标准误)"

物种 Species 季节 Season C (g/kg) N (g/kg) P (g/kg) C : N C : P N : P
海南椴
Diplodiscus trichosperma
春季 Spring 631.96 ± 38.12a 17.63 ± 0.12ab 0.65 ± 0.06a 35.83 ± 2.09ab 984.01 ± 56.99a 27.63 ± 2.11a
夏季 Summer 606.89 ± 8.12ab 19.40 ± 1.33a 0.73 ± 0.09a 31.65 ± 2.66b 853.47 ± 34.03ab 27.48 ± 4.53a
秋季 Autumn 546.15 ± 5.891b 13.75 ± 0.87c 0.58 ± 0.05ab 40.00 ± 2.27a 949.01 ± 76.93a 23.70 ± 1.20a
冬季 Winter 559.95 ± 11.48b 14.71 ± 0.87c 0.57 ± 0.03ab 38.24 ± 1.64a 980.29 ± 44.97a 25.66 ± 0.87a
闭花木
Cleistanthus sumatranus
春季 Spring 644.94 ± 35.61a 13.01 ± 0.87b 0.43 ± 0.02ab 50.12 ± 4.18ab 1,501.64 ± 150.05b 30.17 ± 2.54b
夏季 Summer 636.59 ± 5.45a 19.48 ± 2.67a 0.50 ± 0.02a 33.93 ± 4.57b 1,284.62 ± 38.53b 39.70 ± 7.00a
秋季 Autumn 599.37 ± 2.92a 11.20 ± 0.35b 0.39 ± 0.02b 53.64 ± 1.98ab 1,519.62 ± 84.76b 28.32 ± 0.96b
冬季 Winter 617.74 ± 3.67a 9.50 ± 0.32b 0.31 ± 0.02c 65.13 ± 1.99a 2,026.05 ± 101.94a 31.10 ± 1.13b
广西牡荆
Vitex kwangsiensia
春季 Spring 621.14 ± 37.60a 20.91 ± 0.63a 0.96 ± 0.03b 29.88 ± 2.78a 646.18 ± 25.58a 21.84 ± 1.20a
夏季 Summer 604.61 ± 23.11a 24.87 ± 0.13a 1.28 ± 0.05a 24.31 ± 0.99ab 474.81 ± 34.03b 19.48 ± 0.64a
秋季 Autumn 568.00 ± 3.49a 18.62 ± 0.15b 1.05 ± 0.02b 30.51 ± 0.34a 541.27 ± 9.08ab 17.75 ± 0.49a
冬季 Winter 534.22 ± 39.44ab 17.29 ± 0.47b 1.04 ± 0.10b 30.84 ± 1.72a 517.75 ± 45.97ab 16.80 ± 1.15a
苹婆
Sterculia monosperma
春季 Spring 612.08 ± 26.03a 14.98 ± 0.73b 0.97 ± 0.06b 41.13 ± 3.21a 635.44 ± 60.17a 15.41 ± 0.25a
夏季 Summer 556.00 ± 15.59a 19.44 ± 0.60a 1.49 ± 0.05a 28.63 ± 0.75b 373.98 ± 16.39c 13.05 ± 0.31a
秋季 Autumn 562.55 ± 3.54a 15.23 ± 0.48b 1.22 ± 0.12ab 37.01 ± 1.35a 470.92 ± 44.59b 12.84 ± 1.68a
冬季 Winter 583.38 ± 13.02a 15.61 ± 0.19b 1.24 ± 0.23ab 37.38 ± 0.60a 525.13 ± 103.88b 14.06 ± 2.84a
中国无忧花
Saraca dives
春季 Spring 589.41 ± 9.94a 14.64 ± 0.69a 1.39 ± 0.28a 40.47 ± 2.52b 405.08 ± 67.98a 10.15 ± 2.07a
夏季 Summer 589.05 ± 7.66a 15.95 ± 0.47a 1.55 ± 0.20a 37.04 ± 1.54b 440.75 ± 58.67a 12.07 ± 2.12a
秋季 Autumn 566.74 ± 2.26a 14.16 ± 0.58a 1.19 ± 0.10ab 40.14 ± 1.54b 484.56 ± 41.07a 12.09 ± 1.06a
冬季 Winter 568.74 ± 17.89a 11.01 ± 1.22b 1.21 ± 0.04ab 52.90 ± 5.95a 470.40 ± 11.80a 9.15 ± 1.15a
广西棋子豆
Archidendron guangxiensis
春季 Spring 704.78 ± 13.80a 21.20 ± 0.48a 0.42 ± 0.06b 33.31 ± 1.38a 1,723.53 ± 216.60a 51.83 ± 6.35a
夏季 Summer 614.27 ± 47.98b 24.84 ± 0.59a 0.57 ± 0.02a 24.79 ± 2.17ab 1,074.73 ± 58.67b 43.66 ± 1.75ab
秋季 Autumn 637.85 ± 4.48ab 19.08 ± 0.54a 0.44 ± 0.03b 33.48 ± 1.09a 1,476.42 ± 108.41ab 43.97 ± 1.86ab
冬季 Winter 639.11 ± 6.37ab 19.84 ± 1.08a 0.49 ± 0.01ab 32.42 ± 2.01a 1,314.19 ± 19.96ab 40.92 ± 3.12ab
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