生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 1019-1030.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017103

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    

大亚湾底拖网海洋生物种类组成及物种多样性

张敬怀*(), 高阳, 时小军, 吕向立   

  1. 国家海洋局南海环境监测中心, 广州 510300
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-27 接受日期:2017-06-02 出版日期:2017-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 张敬怀 E-mail:zhangjinghuai@sohu.com
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41406179, 41776172)

Species composition and diversity of marine organisms from benthic trawling in Daya Bay of the northern South China Sea

Jinghuai Zhang*(), Yang Gao, Xiaojun Shi, Xiangli Lü   

  1. South China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Guangzhou 510300
  • Received:2017-03-27 Accepted:2017-06-02 Online:2017-09-20
  • Contact: Zhang Jinghuai E-mail:zhangjinghuai@sohu.com

为了能够掌握大亚湾物种多样性状况, 本文利用2004-2015年大亚湾底栖生物调查底拖网数据, 研究了该海域的生物种类组成、优势种及物种多样性的时空变化。结果表明: 2004-2015年共获得海洋动物429种, 隶属于10门16纲175科309属, 各航次物种数变化范围在75-114种之间, 不同年份、季节均以软体动物、节肢动物和鱼类为主要生物类群; 大亚湾物种数量的空间分布存在差异, 春季在2007年前基本呈现海湾西部高于东部的趋势, 夏季在2008年前则呈现向海湾西南部升高的趋势, 之后不同季节则基本呈现湾口高于湾内北部、东部高于西部的趋势; 大亚湾的主要优势种具有一定的季节性变化, 春季常以鳞片帝汶蛤(Timoclea imbricata)或波纹巴非蛤(Paratapes undulatus)优势度最高, 夏季2004-2007年间优势度最高的优势种经常变化, 2008年后则以棒锥螺(Turritella bacillum)优势度最高, 秋季棒锥螺或鳞片帝汶蛤优势度最高; 2004年后大亚湾底拖网物种多样性呈逐渐降低的趋势, 特别是海湾北部物种多样性下降严重, 受人类活动的干扰较大。目前, 大亚湾的局部区域承担了整个海湾物种多样性的维持功能, 底栖生态系统相对更加脆弱。

关键词: 南中国海, 大型底栖生物, 定性调查, 物种多样性, 优势种

Based on data from benthic trawling in Daya Bay between 2004 and 2015, the temporal and spatial characteristics of species composition and diversity were analyzed. A total of 429 species of marine animals were identified, belonging to 10 phyla, 16 classes, 175 families, and 309 genera. Species numbers varied between 75-114 in Daya Bay between 2004 and 2015. Chordata, Arthropoda, and Mollusca were the dominant phyla from 2004 to 2015, respectively. Species numbers showed a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2015. In the spring, the species number was higher in the western part of Daya Bay than the eastern region before 2007. More recently, the species number was higher in the mouth and the eastern parts of Daya Bay than the northern and western regions. In the summer, the species numbers increased in the southwestern region of the bay before 2008, but after 2009 results showed that the species number was higher in the mouth of the bay than the inner region. Timoclea imbricata or Paphia undulata were the first dominant species in spring. In summer, the first dominant species varied before 2007, but Turritella bacillum was the most dominant species after 2008. In autumn, Timoclea imbricata or Turritella bacillum was the first dominant species. The average Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), Pielou’s evenness index (J'), and species richness index (d) varied between 1.46-4.05, 0.30-0.89 and 2.49-6.69, respectively. Diversity decreased in Daya Bay between 2004 and 2015, especially in the northwestern area, mainly due to heavy anthropogenic activities. In recent years, the species resources of some areas of Daya Bay contribute mostly to the function of species diversity of the whole bay in the past, and benthic ecosystems have become more fragile.

Key words: South China Sea, macrobenthos, qualitative investigation, species diversity, dominant species

图1

大亚湾调查区域和站位"

表1

2004-2015年大亚湾底拖网生物种类组成"

季节
Season

Year
脊索动物
Chordata
节肢动物
Arthropoda
软体动物
Mollusca
棘皮动物
Echinodermata
环节动物
Annelida
刺胞动物
Cnidaria
其他类群
Others
合计
Sum
春季
Spring
2004 19 35 41 6 2 4 1 108
2005 19 28 28 4 1 2 2 84
2006 22 33 43 7 3 5 0 113
2007 22 22 31 8 2 2 2 89
2008 19 33 25 5 1 3 0 86
2012 13 30 22 4 4 3 1 77
2013 10 31 34 5 6 6 2 94
小计Subtotal 62 79 87 19 13 11 5 276
夏季
Summer
2004 18 38 28 6 1 1 2 94
2005 38 33 32 5 0 4 2 114
2006 13 30 43 2 5 5 0 98
2007 27 17 29 2 1 1 1 78
2008 30 28 26 4 1 2 1 92
2009 20 25 24 5 0 0 1 75
2010 16 28 42 1 2 4 2 95
2011 24 34 37 5 5 4 0 109
2012 22 33 34 4 5 2 1 101
2013 14 24 31 1 3 4 2 79
2014 15 28 28 2 0 3 2 78
2015 22 33 32 4 6 3 3 103
小计Subtotal 97 96 105 16 19 14 4 351
秋季
Autumn
2011 24 31 27 3 3 2 1 91
2012 25 32 20 1 0 1 1 80
2013 16 27 29 1 2 3 1 79
小计Subtotal 37 50 40 3 4 5 1 140
总计 Total 116 122 127 22 21 16 5 429

图2

2004-2015年大亚湾底拖网物种数变化规律"

图3

与2004年春季相比, 2004-2015年大亚湾底拖网生物种、属和科相似性指数变化图"

图4

2004-2015年夏季大亚湾底拖网物种数量的空间变化"

图5

2004-2008年春季和2012-2013年春、秋季大亚湾底拖网物种数量的空间变化"

表2

2004-2015年夏季大亚湾底拖网海区优势种统计"

优势种 Dominant species 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
海地瓜 Acaudina molpadioides ++ - - - ++ + - + + - - +
扁拉文海胆 Lovenia subcarinata ++ + - - - + + + + - - -
光滑倍棘蛇尾 Amphioplus laevis + + + - + - - ++ +++ - + +
长鳍蓝子鱼 Siganus canaliculatus ++ + + ++ + +++ + - + + +++ +
四线天竺鲷 Ostorhinchus fasciatus ++ + ++ + + + + + + + + +
基岛 Callionymus kaianus ++ + + ++ + - + + + - + +
口虾姑 Oratosquilla oratoria + + + + ++ ++ + + + + + +
须赤虾 Metapenaeopsis barbata ++ + + + +++ ++ + - + + - -
伪装仿关公蟹 Dorippoides facchino + + + + + + + ++ + + + +
隆线强蟹 Eucrate crenata + + + + + + + + ++ + ++ ++
变态蟳 Charybdis (Charybdis) variegata + + + + + + + + + + + +
玻璃壳蛞蝓 Philine infortunata - - - - - - + + + + - +
白龙骨乐飞螺 Lophiotoma leucotropis ++ + ++ ++ ++ + + + + + + +
假奈拟塔螺 Turricula nelliae ++++ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + + + ++ ++
棒锥螺 Turritella bacillum +++ + ++++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
美叶雪蛤 Placamen lamellatum + + ++ ++ + ++ +++ ++ + + + +
波纹巴非蛤 Paratapes undulatus ++ + ++ ++++ + + + ++ ++ ++ ++ +++
鳞片帝汶蛤 Timoclea imbricata + ++++ +++ ++ - - + +++ + - - +
锒边鸟蛤 Vepricardium coronatum + +++ + + ++ + + ++ + + + ++
短吻铲荚螠 Listriolobus brevirostris ++ + - - + + + - + +++ ++ +

表3

2004-2013年春、秋季大亚湾底拖网海区优势种统计"

优势种
Dominant species
春季 Spring 秋季 Autumn
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2012 2013 2011 2012 2013
海地瓜 Acaudina molpadioides + - - + + + - + - -
扁拉文海胆 Lovenia subcarinata ++ + + + + + - + - -
光滑倍棘蛇尾 Amphioplus laevis + - + + + + + ++ + +
长鳍蓝子鱼 Siganus canaliculatus - - - + - + - - + +
四线天竺鲷 Ostorhinchus fasciatus + - + + - - - + + +
基岛 Callionymus kaianus + ++ + + + + - ++ - -
口虾姑 Oratosquilla oratoria + - + - + + - + + +
须赤虾 Metapenaeopsis barbata + + + - + + + + - -
伪装仿关公蟹 Dorippoides facchino + - + + + + + ++ ++ +
隆线强蟹 Eucrate crenata + + + + + + + ++ + +
变态蟳 Charybdis (Charybdis) variegata + ++ + + + ++ + ++ + +
玻璃壳蛞蝓 Philine infortunata + + - + + ++ ++ + + +
白龙骨乐飞螺 Lophiotoma leucotropis + + + + + + + + - -
假奈拟塔螺 Turricula nelliae ++ ++ + + + + + ++ + +
棒锥螺 Turritella bacillum ++ ++ + +++ +++ +++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++
美叶雪蛤 Placamen lamellatum ++ ++ + + + ++ + +++ + +
波纹巴非蛤 Paratapes undulatus +++ ++++ + ++ + ++++ ++++ ++ + +
鳞片帝汶蛤 Timoclea imbricata ++++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++++ - + - - ++++
锒边鸟蛤 Vepricardium coronatum + ++ + + + + ++ + +++ +++
短吻铲荚螠 Listriolobus brevirostris ++ + - - - + ++ + + +

图6

2004-2015年大亚湾底拖网生物种类Shannon-Wiener指数(H')、种类均匀度指数(J')和种类丰富度指数(d)的变化规律"

[1] Cai LZ (2006) Progress on marine benthos ecology and biodiversity. Journal of Xiamen University (Natural Science), 45(Suppl. 2), 83-89. (in Chinese with English abstract)
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:0438-0479.2006.z2.012
[蔡立哲 (2006) 海洋底栖生物生态学和生物多样性研究进展. 厦门大学学报, 45(Suppl. 2), 83-89.]
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:0438-0479.2006.z2.012
[2] Dai AY, Yang SL, Song YZ, Chen GX (1986) Marine Crab of China. China Ocean Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[戴爱云, 杨思谅, 宋玉枝, 陈国孝 (1986) 中国海洋蟹类. 海洋出版社, 北京.]
[3] Dong ZZ (1991) Biology of the Economic Species of Cephalopods in the World Oceans. Shandong Science and Technology Press, Ji’nan. (in Chinese)
[董正之 (1991) 世界大洋经济头足类生物学. 山东科学技术出版社, 济南.]
[4] Du FY, Wang XH, Jia XP, Yang SY, Ma SW, Chen HG, Li CH (2011) Species composition and characteristics of macrobenthos fauna in Daya Bay, South China Sea. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 18, 877-892. (in Chinese with English abstract)
doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1118.2011.00877
[杜飞雁, 王雪辉, 贾晓平, 杨圣云, 马胜伟, 陈海刚, 李纯厚 (2011) 大亚湾海域大型底栖生物种类组成及特征种. 中国水产科学, 18, 877-892.]
doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1118.2011.00877
[5] Du FY, Zhang HH, Li CH, Wang XH, Jia XP (2008) Species composition and diversity of macrobenthos fauna in Daya Bay. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 15, 253-260. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[杜飞雁, 张汉华, 李纯厚, 王雪辉, 贾晓平 (2008) 大亚湾大型底栖动物种类组成及物种多样性. 中国水产科学, 15, 253-260.]
[6] Huang ZG, Lin M (2012) ,An Illustrated Guide to Species in China’s Sea, Vols. 3-8,. China Ocean Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[黄宗国, 林茂 (2012) 中国海洋生物图集, 第三—八册. 海洋出版社, 北京.]
[7] Huang ZP, Huang RL (2012) On Huizhou’s port economy development. Journal of Huizhou University, 32(5), 21-24. (in Chinese with English abstract)
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-5934.2012.05.004
[黄忠平, 黄瑞灵 (2012) 惠州港口经济发展探析. 惠州学院学报, 32(5), 21-24.]
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-5934.2012.05.004
[8] Institute of Zoology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oceanography of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Fisheries College(1962) Fishes of South China Sea. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[中国科学院动物研究所, 中国科学院海洋研究所, 上海水产学院(1962) 南海鱼类志. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[9] Jaccard P (1908) Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bulletin de la Société vaudoise des sciences naturelles, 44, 223-270.
doi: 10.5169/seals-268384
[10] Jiang JX, Cai EX, Wu QQ, Xu HZ, Li RG, Zheng FW, He MH, Lin SD, Huang XG (1990a) Species composition and quantitative distribution on benthos animals in Daya Bay. In: Collections of Papers on Marine Ecology in the Daya Bay (II) (ed. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration), pp. 237-247. China Ocean Press, Beijing. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[江锦祥, 蔡尔西, 吴启泉, 徐惠州, 李荣冠, 郑凤武, 何明海, 林双淡, 黄心光 (1990a) 大亚湾底栖生物的种类组成和数量分布. 见: 大亚湾海洋生态文集(II) (国家海洋局第三海洋研究所编), 237-247页. 海洋出版社, 北京.]
[11] Jiang JX, Li RG, Zheng FW, Lu L, Wu QQ, Xu HZ, Huang XG (1990b) Analysis of benthos community structure in Daya Bay. In: Collections of Papers on Marine Ecology in the Daya Bay (II) (ed. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration), pp. 282-289. China Ocean Press, Beijing. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[江锦祥, 李荣冠, 郑凤武, 鲁琳, 吴启泉, 徐惠州, 黄心光 (1990b) 大亚湾底栖动物群落结构分析. 见: 大亚湾海洋生态文集(II) (国家海洋局第三海洋研究所编), 282-289页. 海洋出版社, 北京.]
[12] Li CH, Xu SN, Du FY, Lin L (2015) Responses of the Daya Bay ecosystem to human activities and health assessment. Chinese Fishery Quality and Standards, 5(1), 1-10. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[李纯厚, 徐姗楠, 杜飞雁, 林琳 (2015) 大亚湾生态系统对人类活动的响应及健康评价. 中国渔业质量与标准, 5(1), 1-10.]
[13] Li SZ, Wang HM (1995) Fauna Sinica: Ostichthyes Tleuronectiformes. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[李思忠, 王惠民 (1995) 中国动物志硬骨鱼纲鲽形目. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[14] Liao YL (2004) Fauna Sinica: Invertebrata, Vol. 40, Echinodermata Ophiuroidea. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[廖玉麟 (2004) 中国动物志无脊椎动物第四十卷棘皮动物门蛇尾纲. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[15] Liao YL (1997) Fauna Sinica: Phylum Echinodermata Class Holothuroidea. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[廖玉麟 (1997) 中国动物志棘皮动物门海参纲. 科学出版社, 北京. ]
[16] Liu RY, Zhong ZR (1986) Penaeoid Shrimps of the South China Sea. Agricultural Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[刘瑞玉, 钟振如 (1986) 南海对虾类. 农业出版社, 北京.]
[17] Margalef R (1958) Information theory in ecology. International Journal of General Systems, 3, 36-71.
[18] Peng YH, Sun LH, Chen HR, Wang ZD (2002) Study on eutrophication and change of nutrients in the Daya Bay. Marine Science Bulletin, 21(3), 44-49. (in Chinese with English abstract)
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-6392.2002.03.007
[彭云辉, 孙丽华, 陈浩如, 王肇鼎 (2002) 大亚湾海区营养盐的变化及富营养化研究. 海洋通报, 21(3), 44-49.]
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-6392.2002.03.007
[19] Qi ZY (2004) Seashells of China. China Ocean Press, Beijing.
[20] Wang XH, Du FY, Qiu YS, Li CH, Sun DR, Jia XP (2010) Variations of fish species diversity, faunal assemblage, and abundances in Daya Bay in 1980-2007. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 21, 2403-2410. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王雪辉, 杜飞雁, 邱永松, 李纯厚, 孙典荣, 贾晓平 (2010) 1980-2007年大亚湾鱼类物种多样性、区系特征和数量变化. 应用生态学报, 21, 2403-2410.]
[21] Wang YS, Wang ZD, Huang LM (2004) Environment changes and trends in Daya Bay in recent 20 years. Journal of Tropical Oceanography, 23(5), 85-95. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王友绍, 王肇鼎, 黄良民 (2004) 近20年来大亚湾生态环境的变化及其发展趋势. 热带海洋学报, 23(5), 85-95.]
[22] Wang ZD, Lian JS, Hu JX, Wei GF (2003) Characteristics of degraded ecosystem in Daya Bay, China. Ecological Science, 22, 313-320. (in Chinese with English abstract)
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-8873.2003.04.006
[王肇鼎, 练健生, 胡建兴, 韦桂峰 (2003) 大亚湾生态环境的退化现状与特征. 生态科学, 22, 313-320.]
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-8873.2003.04.006
[23] Wei CD, Chen YS (1991) Fauna of Zhejiang: Crustacea. Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing House, Hangzhou. (in Chinese)
[魏崇德, 陈永寿 (1991) 浙江动物志甲壳类. 浙江科学技术出版社, 杭州.]
[24] Xu GZ (1989) Environments and Resources of Daya Bay. Anhui Science and Technology Publishing House, Hefei. (in Chinese)
[徐恭昭 (1989) 大亚湾环境与资源. 安徽科学技术出版社, 合肥.]
[25] Xu ZL, Chen YQ (1989) Aggregated intensity of dominant species of zooplankton in autumn in the East China Sea. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 8(4), 13-15. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[徐兆礼, 陈亚瞿 (1989) 东黄海秋季浮游动物优势种聚集强度与蛤鳍渔场的关系. 生态学杂志, 8(4), 13-15.]
[26] Yu J, Chen GB, Huang ZR, Chen ZZ (2014) Changes in the coastline of three typical bays in Guangdong during recent 10 years revealed by satellite image. Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology, (3), 91-96. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[于杰, 陈国宝, 黄梓荣, 陈作志 (2014)近10年间广东省3个典型海湾海岸线变迁的遥感分析. 海洋湖沼通报, (3), 91-96.]
[27] Zhang FY, Liao YL, Wu BL, Cheng LR (1964) Illustrations of Chinese Fauna: Echinodermata. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[张凤瀛, 廖玉麟, 吴宝铃, 程丽仁 (1964) 中国动物图谱棘皮动物. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[28] Zhang JH, Xiao YZ, Wang H, Lin D, Dong YH (2007) Analysis of community structure on macrobenthos in sea area around Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. Marine Environmental Science, 26, 561-564. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[张敬怀, 肖瑜璋, 王华, 林端, 董燕红 (2007) 大亚湾核电站邻近海域大型底栖生物群落结构分析. 海洋环境科学, 26, 561-564.]
[29] Zhou H, Li FL, Wang W (2007) Fauna Sinica: Invertebrata, Vol. 46, Sipuncula Echiura. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[周红, 李凤鲁, 王玮 (2007) 中国动物志无脊椎动物第四十六卷星虫动物门螠虫动物门. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[1] 邹安龙, 马素辉, 倪晓凤, 蔡琼, 李修平, 吉成均. 模拟氮沉降对北京东灵山辽东栎群落林下植物物种多样性的影响[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 607-618.
[2] 胡宜峰, 余文华, 岳阳, 黄正澜懿, 李玉春, 吴毅. 海南岛翼手目物种多样性现状与分布预测[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(4): 400-408.
[3] 颜文博,吉晟男,帅凌鹰,赵雷刚,朱大鹏,曾治高. 秦岭南坡陕西洋县辖区哺乳动物物种多样性的空间分布格局[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(2): 177-185.
[4] 陈作艺, 许晓静, 朱素英, 翟梦怡, 李扬. 中国沿海洛氏角毛藻复合群的多样性组成及地理分布[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(2): 149-158.
[5] 邹东廷, 王庆刚, 罗奥, 王志恒. 中国蔷薇科植物多样性格局及其资源植物保护现状[J]. 植物生态学报, 2019, 43(1): 1-15.
[6] 王波, 黄勇, 李家堂, 戴强, 王跃招, 杨道德. 西南喀斯特地貌区两栖动物丰富度分布格局与环境因子的关系[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(9): 941-950.
[7] 孙德鑫, 刘向, 周淑荣. 停止人为去除植物功能群后的高寒草甸多样性恢复过程与群落构建[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(7): 655-666.
[8] 张宇, 冯刚. 内蒙古昆虫物种多样性分布格局及其机制[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(7): 701-706.
[9] 陶夏秋, 崔绍朋, 蒋志刚, 初红军, 李娜, 杨道德, 李春旺. 新疆阿勒泰地区爬行动物区系及多样性海拔分布格局[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(6): 578-589.
[10] 田成, 李俊清, 杨旭煜, 余鳞, 袁丹, 黎运喜. 利用红外相机技术对四川王朗国家级自然保护区野生动物物种多样性的初步调查[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(6): 620-626.
[11] 温韩东, 林露湘, 杨洁, 胡跃华, 曹敏, 刘玉洪, 鲁志云, 谢有能. 云南哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林20 hm2动态样地的物种组成与群落结构[J]. 植物生态学报, 2018, 42(4): 419-429.
[12] 杨倩, 王娓, 曾辉. 氮添加对内蒙古退化草地植物群落多样性和生物量的影响[J]. 植物生态学报, 2018, 42(4): 430-441.
[13] 刘海跃, 李欣玫, 张琳琳, 王姣姣, 贺学礼. 西北荒漠带花棒根际丛枝菌根真菌生态地理分布[J]. 植物生态学报, 2018, 42(2): 252-260.
[14] 胡一鸣, 梁健超, 金崑, 丁志锋, 周智鑫, 胡慧建, 蒋志刚. 喜马拉雅山哺乳动物物种多样性垂直分布格局[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(2): 191-201.
[15] 商天其, 叶诺楠, 高海卿, 高洪娣, 伊力塔. 基于多元回归树的公益林群落结构解析[J]. 植物学报, 2018, 53(2): 238-249.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed