生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 1019-1030.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017103

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    

大亚湾底拖网海洋生物种类组成及物种多样性

张敬怀*(), 高阳, 时小军, 吕向立   

  1. 国家海洋局南海环境监测中心, 广州 510300
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-27 接受日期:2017-06-02 出版日期:2017-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 张敬怀 E-mail:zhangjinghuai@sohu.com
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41406179, 41776172)

Species composition and diversity of marine organisms from benthic trawling in Daya Bay of the northern South China Sea

Jinghuai Zhang*(), Yang Gao, Xiaojun Shi, Xiangli Lü   

  1. South China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Guangzhou 510300
  • Received:2017-03-27 Accepted:2017-06-02 Online:2017-09-20
  • Contact: Zhang Jinghuai E-mail:zhangjinghuai@sohu.com

为了能够掌握大亚湾物种多样性状况, 本文利用2004-2015年大亚湾底栖生物调查底拖网数据, 研究了该海域的生物种类组成、优势种及物种多样性的时空变化。结果表明: 2004-2015年共获得海洋动物429种, 隶属于10门16纲175科309属, 各航次物种数变化范围在75-114种之间, 不同年份、季节均以软体动物、节肢动物和鱼类为主要生物类群; 大亚湾物种数量的空间分布存在差异, 春季在2007年前基本呈现海湾西部高于东部的趋势, 夏季在2008年前则呈现向海湾西南部升高的趋势, 之后不同季节则基本呈现湾口高于湾内北部、东部高于西部的趋势; 大亚湾的主要优势种具有一定的季节性变化, 春季常以鳞片帝汶蛤(Timoclea imbricata)或波纹巴非蛤(Paratapes undulatus)优势度最高, 夏季2004-2007年间优势度最高的优势种经常变化, 2008年后则以棒锥螺(Turritella bacillum)优势度最高, 秋季棒锥螺或鳞片帝汶蛤优势度最高; 2004年后大亚湾底拖网物种多样性呈逐渐降低的趋势, 特别是海湾北部物种多样性下降严重, 受人类活动的干扰较大。目前, 大亚湾的局部区域承担了整个海湾物种多样性的维持功能, 底栖生态系统相对更加脆弱。

关键词: 南中国海, 大型底栖生物, 定性调查, 物种多样性, 优势种

Based on data from benthic trawling in Daya Bay between 2004 and 2015, the temporal and spatial characteristics of species composition and diversity were analyzed. A total of 429 species of marine animals were identified, belonging to 10 phyla, 16 classes, 175 families, and 309 genera. Species numbers varied between 75-114 in Daya Bay between 2004 and 2015. Chordata, Arthropoda, and Mollusca were the dominant phyla from 2004 to 2015, respectively. Species numbers showed a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2015. In the spring, the species number was higher in the western part of Daya Bay than the eastern region before 2007. More recently, the species number was higher in the mouth and the eastern parts of Daya Bay than the northern and western regions. In the summer, the species numbers increased in the southwestern region of the bay before 2008, but after 2009 results showed that the species number was higher in the mouth of the bay than the inner region. Timoclea imbricata or Paphia undulata were the first dominant species in spring. In summer, the first dominant species varied before 2007, but Turritella bacillum was the most dominant species after 2008. In autumn, Timoclea imbricata or Turritella bacillum was the first dominant species. The average Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), Pielou’s evenness index (J'), and species richness index (d) varied between 1.46-4.05, 0.30-0.89 and 2.49-6.69, respectively. Diversity decreased in Daya Bay between 2004 and 2015, especially in the northwestern area, mainly due to heavy anthropogenic activities. In recent years, the species resources of some areas of Daya Bay contribute mostly to the function of species diversity of the whole bay in the past, and benthic ecosystems have become more fragile.

Key words: South China Sea, macrobenthos, qualitative investigation, species diversity, dominant species

图1

大亚湾调查区域和站位"

表1

2004-2015年大亚湾底拖网生物种类组成"

季节
Season

Year
脊索动物
Chordata
节肢动物
Arthropoda
软体动物
Mollusca
棘皮动物
Echinodermata
环节动物
Annelida
刺胞动物
Cnidaria
其他类群
Others
合计
Sum
春季
Spring
2004 19 35 41 6 2 4 1 108
2005 19 28 28 4 1 2 2 84
2006 22 33 43 7 3 5 0 113
2007 22 22 31 8 2 2 2 89
2008 19 33 25 5 1 3 0 86
2012 13 30 22 4 4 3 1 77
2013 10 31 34 5 6 6 2 94
小计Subtotal 62 79 87 19 13 11 5 276
夏季
Summer
2004 18 38 28 6 1 1 2 94
2005 38 33 32 5 0 4 2 114
2006 13 30 43 2 5 5 0 98
2007 27 17 29 2 1 1 1 78
2008 30 28 26 4 1 2 1 92
2009 20 25 24 5 0 0 1 75
2010 16 28 42 1 2 4 2 95
2011 24 34 37 5 5 4 0 109
2012 22 33 34 4 5 2 1 101
2013 14 24 31 1 3 4 2 79
2014 15 28 28 2 0 3 2 78
2015 22 33 32 4 6 3 3 103
小计Subtotal 97 96 105 16 19 14 4 351
秋季
Autumn
2011 24 31 27 3 3 2 1 91
2012 25 32 20 1 0 1 1 80
2013 16 27 29 1 2 3 1 79
小计Subtotal 37 50 40 3 4 5 1 140
总计 Total 116 122 127 22 21 16 5 429

图2

2004-2015年大亚湾底拖网物种数变化规律"

图3

与2004年春季相比, 2004-2015年大亚湾底拖网生物种、属和科相似性指数变化图"

图4

2004-2015年夏季大亚湾底拖网物种数量的空间变化"

图5

2004-2008年春季和2012-2013年春、秋季大亚湾底拖网物种数量的空间变化"

表2

2004-2015年夏季大亚湾底拖网海区优势种统计"

优势种 Dominant species 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
海地瓜 Acaudina molpadioides ++ - - - ++ + - + + - - +
扁拉文海胆 Lovenia subcarinata ++ + - - - + + + + - - -
光滑倍棘蛇尾 Amphioplus laevis + + + - + - - ++ +++ - + +
长鳍蓝子鱼 Siganus canaliculatus ++ + + ++ + +++ + - + + +++ +
四线天竺鲷 Ostorhinchus fasciatus ++ + ++ + + + + + + + + +
基岛 Callionymus kaianus ++ + + ++ + - + + + - + +
口虾姑 Oratosquilla oratoria + + + + ++ ++ + + + + + +
须赤虾 Metapenaeopsis barbata ++ + + + +++ ++ + - + + - -
伪装仿关公蟹 Dorippoides facchino + + + + + + + ++ + + + +
隆线强蟹 Eucrate crenata + + + + + + + + ++ + ++ ++
变态蟳 Charybdis (Charybdis) variegata + + + + + + + + + + + +
玻璃壳蛞蝓 Philine infortunata - - - - - - + + + + - +
白龙骨乐飞螺 Lophiotoma leucotropis ++ + ++ ++ ++ + + + + + + +
假奈拟塔螺 Turricula nelliae ++++ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + + + ++ ++
棒锥螺 Turritella bacillum +++ + ++++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
美叶雪蛤 Placamen lamellatum + + ++ ++ + ++ +++ ++ + + + +
波纹巴非蛤 Paratapes undulatus ++ + ++ ++++ + + + ++ ++ ++ ++ +++
鳞片帝汶蛤 Timoclea imbricata + ++++ +++ ++ - - + +++ + - - +
锒边鸟蛤 Vepricardium coronatum + +++ + + ++ + + ++ + + + ++
短吻铲荚螠 Listriolobus brevirostris ++ + - - + + + - + +++ ++ +

表3

2004-2013年春、秋季大亚湾底拖网海区优势种统计"

优势种
Dominant species
春季 Spring 秋季 Autumn
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2012 2013 2011 2012 2013
海地瓜 Acaudina molpadioides + - - + + + - + - -
扁拉文海胆 Lovenia subcarinata ++ + + + + + - + - -
光滑倍棘蛇尾 Amphioplus laevis + - + + + + + ++ + +
长鳍蓝子鱼 Siganus canaliculatus - - - + - + - - + +
四线天竺鲷 Ostorhinchus fasciatus + - + + - - - + + +
基岛 Callionymus kaianus + ++ + + + + - ++ - -
口虾姑 Oratosquilla oratoria + - + - + + - + + +
须赤虾 Metapenaeopsis barbata + + + - + + + + - -
伪装仿关公蟹 Dorippoides facchino + - + + + + + ++ ++ +
隆线强蟹 Eucrate crenata + + + + + + + ++ + +
变态蟳 Charybdis (Charybdis) variegata + ++ + + + ++ + ++ + +
玻璃壳蛞蝓 Philine infortunata + + - + + ++ ++ + + +
白龙骨乐飞螺 Lophiotoma leucotropis + + + + + + + + - -
假奈拟塔螺 Turricula nelliae ++ ++ + + + + + ++ + +
棒锥螺 Turritella bacillum ++ ++ + +++ +++ +++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++
美叶雪蛤 Placamen lamellatum ++ ++ + + + ++ + +++ + +
波纹巴非蛤 Paratapes undulatus +++ ++++ + ++ + ++++ ++++ ++ + +
鳞片帝汶蛤 Timoclea imbricata ++++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++++ - + - - ++++
锒边鸟蛤 Vepricardium coronatum + ++ + + + + ++ + +++ +++
短吻铲荚螠 Listriolobus brevirostris ++ + - - - + ++ + + +

图6

2004-2015年大亚湾底拖网生物种类Shannon-Wiener指数(H')、种类均匀度指数(J')和种类丰富度指数(d)的变化规律"

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