生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 1008-1018.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017099

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于PAE编码系统的半放养阿拉伯狒狒的行为多样性

宁致远1,2, 董贵信3, 唐虹4, 蓝道英1,*, 胡慧建1,*   

  1. 1 广东省生物资源应用研究所, 广东省动物保护与资源利用重点实验室, 广东省野生动物保护与利用公共实验室, 广州 510260
    2 中国科学院华南植物园, 广东省应用植物学重点实验室, 广州 510650
    3 广州长隆野生动物世界, 广州 511430
    4 广东省珠海淇澳-担杆岛省级自然保护区, 广东珠海 519000
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-27 接受日期:2017-06-15 出版日期:2017-09-20 发布日期:2017-10-04
  • 通讯作者: 蓝道英,胡慧建
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31572257)、广东省自然科学基金(2015A030313870)和广东省科学院科技发展专项(2017GDASCX-0107)

Behavioral diversity of semi-captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) on the basis of the PAE coding system

Zhiyuan Ning1,2, Guixin Dong3, Hong Tang4, Daoying Lan1,*, Huijian Hu1,*   

  1. 1 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260
    2 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    3 Guangzhou Chimelong Safari Park, Guangzhou 511430
    4 Guangdong Zhuhai Qi’ao-Dan’gan Island Provincial Nature Reserve, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000
  • Received:2017-03-27 Accepted:2017-06-15 Online:2017-09-20 Published:2017-10-04
  • Contact: Lan Daoying,Hu Huijian

摘要:

动物行为多样性作为生物多样性的重要组成部分, 与珍稀动物的迁地保护以及行为管理密切相关。2015年12月至2016年8月, 我们在广州长隆野生动物世界园区内的狒狒岛, 利用焦点取样法和瞬时扫描取样法, 观察并记录了半放养条件下阿拉伯狒狒(Papio hamadryas)行为的发生过程、内容和环境。基于以“姿势-动作-环境”(posture-act-environment, PAE)为轴心、以行为生态功能为依据的PAE编码系统, 对该环境下阿拉伯狒狒的行为进行分类和系统编码, 构建并利用PAE行为谱表征其行为多样性。结果如下: (1)研究中分辨并记录到阿拉伯狒狒的18种姿势, 120种动作, 208种行为; (2)记录到的行为可分别归入摄食、排遗、调温、配对、交配、育幼、亲密、高序位、威胁、攻击、屈服、通讯、聚群、休息、运动、玩耍、讨食和杂类18个类别中; (3)编制基于PAE编码系统的人工饲养阿拉伯狒狒行为谱, 描述了各种行为的相对发生频次与性别、年龄的关系; (4)在前人工作的基础上为非人灵长类PAE行为编码系统丰富了两类行为(玩耍行为和讨食行为), 描述了半放养环境下阿拉伯狒狒这两类行为的特点, 并探讨了其生态功能和适应意义; (5)基于PAE行为谱求得阿拉伯狒狒各年龄-性别组的行为多样性指数。本研究发现, 阿拉伯狒狒各年龄-性别组的行为多样性在总体层面上很接近, 在细分的行为层面上则有着渐进明显的差别。这表明, 利用PAE行为编码分类系统对动物的行为进行归类细分以及编码标准化, 对于行为多样性的研究是有帮助的。

关键词: 阿拉伯狒狒, 行为谱, PAE编码系统, 行为多样性, 半放养

Abstract

Diversity of animal behavior, as an essential part of biodiversity, is closely related to the ex situ conservation and behavior management of rare animals. We recorded the processes, contents, and surrounding habitat, derived from behaviors of semi-captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) living in Guangzhou Chimelong Safari Park between December 2015 and August 2016. Both instantaneous scan sampling and focal animal sampling methods were used. The behavioral data were collected and coded based on the “posture-act-environment” (PAE) coding system which concerns posture, act, environment and the ecological function of behaviors. All observed behaviors of hamadryas baboons were classified and systematically encoded to construct the PAE behavior spectrum, and behavioral diversity was characterized simultaneously. A total of 18 postures, 120 acts and 208 behaviors were distinguished and the relative frequency of each behavior in relation to gender and age was described. Based on the ecological function of behaviors, these recorded behaviors were divided into 18 categories, including forage, eliminate, thermo-regulate, pair, mate, parent, affinitive, superior, threaten, aggression, submission, communicate, aggregate, rest, locomotive, play, beg, and miscellaneous behaviors. This ethogram extends previous behavioral lists and ethograms of non-human primate species constructed by our predecessors. Furthermore, two categories of behavior (play and beg) were enhanced in the non-human primates’ PAE behavior coding system. The characteristics of these two categories of behaviors were described and discussed, and hence, they are proposed to be new adaptive behavior to the captive environment. This research also probed the ecological function and adaptable significance for most behavior categories, separately. Finally, the index of behavioral diversity among different sex-age classes of semi-captive P. hamadryas were calculated on the basis of PAE coding system. Our results suggest that the behavioral diversity among different sex-age classes of semi-captive P. hamadryas were very close to one other at the overall behavioral level, and the more subdivided the behavioral segmentation was, the more obvious the displayed differences. It also proves that the utilization of the PAE coding system to classify, subdivide, and standardize the behavior of animals will improve the study of behavioral diversity.

Key words: Papio hamadryas, ethogram, PAE coding system, behavioral diversity, semi-captivity