生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (12): 1257-1266.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016366

• 生物入侵专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同光照和水分条件下鬼针草属入侵种与本地种生长、光合特征及表型可塑性的比较

潘玉梅, 唐赛春*(), 韦春强, 李象钦   

  1. 广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所广西植物功能物质研究与利用重点实验室, 广西桂林 541006
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-26 接受日期:2017-07-01 出版日期:2017-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 唐赛春 E-mail:tangs@gxib.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31460165, 31260154)

Comparison of growth, photosynthesis and phenotypic plasticity between invasive and native Bidens species under different light and water conditions

Yumei Pan, Saichun Tang*(), Chunqiang Wei, Xiangqin Li   

  1. Guangxi Key Laboratory of Functional Phytochemicals Research and Utilization, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
  • Received:2016-12-26 Accepted:2017-07-01 Online:2017-12-20
  • Contact: Tang Saichun E-mail:tangs@gxib.cn

为探讨鬼针草属(Bidens)入侵种的入侵性, 利用同质园种植实验比较了该属入侵种三叶鬼针草(Bidens pilosa)和大狼耙草(B. frondosa)与本地种金盏银盘(B. biternata)和狼耙草(B. tripartita)在光照与水分交互作用下的形态、生长、生物量分配、光合特征及其表型可塑性的差异。结果表明: 入侵种的株高和生物量在低光低水条件下与本地种相似, 在有利的光照和水分条件(高光高水)下显著高于本地种, 相对生长速率在高光条件下均高于本地种。入侵种在高光处理下增加了对地下部分的资源投入, 在低光处理下增加了对叶的投入, 且低光低水条件下比叶面积显著高于本地种。这些特性可能提高了入侵种对资源的捕获和利用能力, 使其既能耐受不利的环境, 又能在有利的条件下表现最大化。入侵种和本地种的形态、生长和光合生理等参数对水分变化的可塑性指数均较小, 对光照变化的可塑性指数均较大。入侵种的多数变量对光照响应的可塑性指数大于本地种, 较大的表型可塑性可能促进其成功入侵。另外, 入侵种和本地种的光合生理参数无显著差异。相对于光合特征, 形态、生长、生物量分配和表型可塑性等可能对鬼针草属入侵种的入侵性更为重要。

关键词: 鬼针草属, 入侵种, 本地种, 生长特征, 光合特征, 表型可塑性

To explore the traits related to the invasiveness of exotic Bidens species in China, we compared the morphology, growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, and phenotypic plasticity of two invasive Bidens species (B. pilosa and B. frondosa) with two native congeners (B. biternata and B. tripartita) under different light and water conditions in a common garden. The results showed that the invasive and native species displayed similar plant heights and total biomass under unfavorable conditions (i.e. low light and low water treatment). However, under favorable light and water conditions (i.e. high light and high water treatment), the invasive species showed significantly greater plant height and total biomass than the native congeners. Furthermore, in high light treatments, the relative growth rate of the invasive species was higher than that of the native species. The invasive species allocated more resources to root biomass at high light levels compared to low light levels, while they allocated more resources to leaf biomass at low light levels compared to high light levels. Specific leaf area of the invasive species was greater than that of the native congeners under low light conditions. These traits may enhance the abilities of invasive species to capture and utilize resources, enabling them to withstand adverse environmental conditions or to respond more positively to favorable conditions. The phenotypic plasticity indices of invasive and native species for morphology, growth, and photosynthetic parameters were low for water availability and high for light intensity. However, for most variables, invasive species showed a higher phenotypic plasticity index than native congeners, and this may contribute to their invasion success. In addition, there were no significant differences for photosynthetic parameters between invasive and native Bidens species under any treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that morphology, growth, biomass allocation, and phenotypic plasticity may play more important roles than photosynthetic parameters in the success of invasive Bidens species.

Key words: Bidens, invasive species, native species, growth traits, photosynthetic characteristics, phenotypic plasticity

表1

光照、水分、物种来源及其交互作用对鬼针草属入侵种和本地种形态、生长及光合参数的影响(F值)"

变量 Variables 光照 Light
(L) (df = 1)
水分 Water
(W) (df = 1)
来源 Origin
(O) (df = 1)
物种(来源) Species
(origin) (df = 2)
L × W
(df = 1)
L × O
(df = 1)
W × O
(df = 1)
L × W × O
(df = 1)
株高 Plant height 194.98*** 39.31*** 0.39 30.70*** 50.92*** 8.11** 1.24 5.96*
比叶面积 SLA 467.90*** 11.36** 15.32 0.78 6.36* 7.38* 0.08 0.08
总生物量 Total biomass 494.65*** 76.66*** 0.544 25.33*** 73.15*** 11.2** 3.45 3.7
相对生长速率 RGR 1,747.95*** 29.13*** 0.89 101.44*** 33.78*** 5.70* 3.37 1.02
根生物量比 RMR 46.92*** 0.03 0.09 9.07*** 3.16 15.43*** 0.04 0.001
茎生物量比 SMR 0.101 9.09** 4.27 2.44 1.30 11.05** 0.06 0.03
叶生物量比 LMR 5.53* 8.07** 5.13 1.49 3.19 22.38*** 0.02 0.03
光补偿点 LCP 220.98*** 0.01 0.01 2.17 0.91 0.57 0.10 0.005
光饱和点 LSP 117.78*** 0.06 0.57 0.61 0.05 0.60 0.73 0.03
最大净光合速率 Amax 132.73*** 0.08 0.16 0.81 0.60 0.64 0.44 0.10
暗呼吸速率 Rday 119.90*** 0.064 0.036 3.45* 0.002 0.054 0.052 0.279

图1

不同光照和水分条件下鬼针草属入侵种与本地种的形态、生长及生物量分配特征(平均值±标准误)。不同大、小写字母分别代表物种在不同处理下和相同处理下入侵种和本地种间差异显著(P < 0.05)。HLHW: 高光高水; HLLW: 高光低水; LLHW: 低光高水; LLLW: 低光低水。"

图2

不同光照和水分条件下鬼针草属入侵种和本地种的光合参数(平均值±标准误)。不同大、小写字母分别代表物种在不同处理下和相同处理下入侵种和本地种间差异显著(P < 0.05)。HLHW: 高光高水; HLLW: 高光低水; LLHW: 低光高水; LLLW: 低光低水。"

表2

鬼针草属入侵种和本地种各变量对光照和水分响应的表型可塑性指数"

变量 Variables 入侵种 Invasive species 本地种 Native species
光照 Light 水分 Water 光照 Light 水分 Water
高水处理
High water
低水处理
Low water
高光处理
High light
低光处理
Low light
高水处理
High water
低水处理
Low water
高光处理
High light
低光处理
Low light
株高 Plant height 0.65 0.302 0.41 0.15 0.5 0.298 0.31 0.03
比叶面积 SLA 0.62 0.57 0.02 0.135 0.57 0.53 0.09 0.16
总生物量 Total biomass 0.98 0.94 0.57 0.09 0.96 0.93 0.51 0.24
根生物量比 RMR 0.53 0.42 0.08 0.12 0.26 0.07 0.08 0.14
茎生物量比 SMR 0.17 0.1 0.16 0.09 0.1 0.2 0.19 0.07
叶生物量比 LMR 0.4 0.24 0.25 0.05 0.03 0.22 0.25 0.07
相对生长速率 RGR 0.52 0.42 0.1 0.07 0.5 0.45 0.14 0.05
最大净光合速率 Amax 0.71 0.67 0.11 0.03 0.64 0.59 0.005 0.12
光补偿点 LCP 0.87 0.93 0.04 0.48 0.81 0.86 0.08 0.21
光饱和点 LSP 0.56 0.55 0.05 0.03 0.53 0.5 0.05 0.11
平均值 Mean value 0.6 0.51 0.18 0.12 0.49 0.46 0.17 0.12
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