生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (8): 907-913.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016365

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探讨我国与邻国共有药用植物的惠益分享机制

刘文静, 徐靖*(), 银森录, 田瑜, 李俊生   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院生物多样性研究中心, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-24 接受日期:2017-04-16 出版日期:2017-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐靖 E-mail:xujing263@163.com
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金项目:
    环境保护部自然生态保护司生物多样性国际合作及履约项目(2024004045)

Mechanisms of benefit-sharing of medicinal plants found in China and neighboring countries

Wenjing Liu, Jing Xu*(), Senlu Yin, Yu Tian, Junsheng Li   

  1. Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2016-12-24 Accepted:2017-04-16 Online:2017-08-20
  • Contact: Xu Jing E-mail:xujing263@163.com

多国共有遗传资源的惠益分享是全球多边惠益分享机制谈判中的重要议题。我国邻国众多, 掌握我国与邻国共有药用植物的数量和空间分布格局是我国参加全球多边惠益分享机制谈判应当关注的焦点问题。本文对我国与邻国共有药用植物的地理分布格局进行了分析。结果表明, 我国药用植物多与东南亚、东北亚及南亚的国家(地区)所共有, 其中与越南共有的药用植物数量最多(220种), 其次为日本(144种), 再次为缅甸(75种), 第4为印度(42种), 我国与邻国共有药用植物呈现地区集中性。由此得出的结论有: (1)与亚洲国家(地区)探讨建立次区域性质的多边惠益分享机制对于我国具有重要意义和价值; (2)应重视与东南亚、南亚和东北亚等共有药用植物较多国家(地区)的双边合作; (3)由于《名古屋议定书》跨界合作条款短时间内难以发挥作用, 目前应支持多边惠益分享机制的讨论, 为我国完善国内立法和推动次区域谈判争取时间。

关键词: 遗传资源, 名古屋议定书, 获取与惠益分享, 全球多边惠益分享机制, 跨界合作

The genetic resources that are commonly shared by many countries are a core issue in the negotiation of the Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism (GMBSM). Because China is a country that has many neighboring countries, understanding the partitioning and spatial patterns is a key issue in China’s participation in the GMBSM negotiation. We analyze the geographical distribution of the plants which are shared among China and its neighboring countries and regions. The results indicate that medicinal plants found in China are commonly shared with Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, and South Asia. Among them, China shares the most medicinal plants (220 species) with Vietnam, followed by Japan (144 species) and Myanmar (75 species), and lastly India (42 species). This study shows that: (1) Discussing the establishment of a regional multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism is significant to China; (2) China should pay more attention to bilateral cooperation with neighboring countries and regions found in Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, and South Asia, as these regions share the most medicinal plants, and (3) Due to the transboundary situation clause in the Protocol is hard to play its role in a short time, additional support is needed in the negotiation of GMBSM in order to allow more time for China’s domestic legislation and sub-regional negotiation.

Key words: genetic resources, Nagoya Protocol, access and benefit-sharing, global multilateral benefit- sharing mechanism, transboundary cooperation

表1

我国与他国(地区)共有药用植物在全球尺度的分布格局"

大洲 Continents 种 Species (% ) 属 Genus 科 Family
总计 Total 4,265(100) 1,581 216
亚洲 Asia 2,509(58.83) 1,040 172
欧洲、亚洲 Europe and Asia 856(20.07) 419 95
世界广布 Widely distributed in the world 222(5.21) 176 59
亚洲、大洋洲 Asia and Oceania 171(4.01) 142 66
欧洲、亚洲、美洲 Europe, Asia and America 127(2.98) 101 13
亚洲、美洲 Asia and America 88(2.06) 67 40
亚洲、非洲 Asia and Africa 75(1.76) 70 39
亚洲、大洋洲、非洲 Asia, Oceania and Africa 62(1.45) 52 27
欧洲、亚洲、非洲 Europe, Asia and Africa 55(1.29) 48 28
欧洲、亚洲、大洋洲 Europe, Asia and Oceania 20(0.47) 20 15
欧洲、亚洲、非洲、美洲 Europe, Asia, Africa and America 20(0.47) 18 13
亚洲、大洋洲、非洲、美洲 Asia, Oceania, Africa and America 19(0.45) 18 13
欧洲、亚洲、大洋洲、美洲 Europe, Asia, Oceania and America 13(0.3) 13 11
欧洲、亚洲、大洋洲、非洲 Europe, Asia, Oceania and Africa 12(0.28) 11 9
亚洲、大洋洲、美洲 Asia, Oceania and America 8(0.19) 8 7
亚洲、非洲、美洲 Asia, Africa and America 8(0.19) 8 7

表2

与他国(地区)共有的药用植物在亚洲各次区域尺度分布格局"

次区域 Sub-region 种 Species (% ) 属 Genus 科 Family
总计 Total 2,509(100) 1,040 172
东南亚、南亚 Southeast Asia and South Asia 836(33.32) 509 132
东南亚 Southeast Asia 630(25.11) 385 122
东北亚 Northeast Asia 375(14.95) 259 97
南亚 South Asia 284(11.32) 206 82
东北亚、东南亚、南亚 Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia 117(4.66) 100 51
东北亚、东南亚 Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia 91(3.63) 80 50
中亚 Central Asia 63(2.51) 50 23
东北亚、南亚 Northeast Asia and South Asia 27(1.08) 27 19
南亚、中亚 South Asia and Central Asia 22(0.88) 21 14
东北亚、中亚 Northeast Asia and Central Asia 17(0.68) 15 10
亚洲广布 Widely distributed in Asia 12(0.48) 12 7
东北亚、南亚、中亚 Northeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia 10(0.4) 10 9
西亚 West Asia 8(0.32) 8 7
南亚、西亚 South Asia and West Asia 4(0.16) 4 4
东北亚、中亚、西亚 Northeast Asia and West Asia 3(0.12) 2 2
东南亚、南亚、西亚 Southeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia 3(0.12) 3 3
东北亚、南亚、中亚、西亚 Northeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia 2(0.08) 2 2
东北亚、东南亚、南亚、中亚 Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
东北亚、南亚、西亚 Northeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
东南亚、南亚、中亚 Southeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
南亚、中亚、西亚 South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
中亚、西亚 Central Asia and West Asia 1(0.04) 1 1

表3

与周边邻国共有药用植物在国家(地区)尺度分布格局"

国家(地区) Countries/regions 种 Species (%) 属 Genus 科 Family
总计 Total 680(100) 416 121
越南 Vietnam 220(32.35) 168 84
日本 Japan 144(21.18) 116 60
缅甸 Myanmar 75(11.03) 60 43
印度 India 42(6.18) 41 27
朝鲜半岛 Korean peninsula 39(5.74) 35 23
俄罗斯 Russia 29(4.26) 28 13
泰国 Thailand 27(3.97) 24 19
蒙古 Mongolia 21(3.09) 19 13
尼泊尔 Nepal 19(2.79) 18 17
不丹 Bhutan 16(2.35) 15 14
哈萨克斯坦 Kazakhstan 16(2.35) 14 8
老挝 Laos 7(1.03) 7 7
印度尼西亚 Indonesia 6(0.88) 5 5
菲律宾 Philippines 6(0.88) 6 6
吉尔吉斯斯坦 Kyrgyzstan 4(0.59) 4 4
克什米尔 Kashmir 3(0.44) 3 2
马来西亚 Malaysia 2(0.29) 2 2
柬埔寨 Cambodia 1(0.15) 1 1
巴基斯坦 Pakistan 1(0.15) 1 1
孟加拉国 Bangladesh 1(0.15) 1 1
塔吉克斯坦 Tajikistan 1(0.15) 1 1
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