生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 285-293.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016315

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福建6个港湾浮游植物多样性及其与水系的关系

叶又茵, 项鹏, 王雨, 林茂*()   

  1. 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-03 接受日期:2017-02-17 出版日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 林茂 E-mail:linmao@tio.org.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费(海三科2015022)

Phytoplankton diversity and its relationship with currents in the six bays of Fujian

Youyin Ye, Peng Xiang, Yu Wang, Mao Lin*()   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2016-11-03 Accepted:2017-02-17 Online:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Lin Mao E-mail:linmao@tio.org.cn

本文分析了2010年和2011年春季和秋季于福建宁德、莆田、湄洲、厦门、漳浦和东山等6个港湾采集的浮游植物样品和相关数据。6个港湾共记录浮游植物4门102属206种, 种数以硅藻最多, 甲藻次之, 金藻和蓝藻较少。6个港湾中, 种类数最多的为莆田(110种), 其次为东山(106种)、厦门(100种)、漳浦(95种)、湄洲(86种), 宁德最少(63种)。季节分析表明, 春季的浮游植物种数呈北部港湾高于南部的分布态势, 秋季反之; 春季的浮游植物细胞丰度分布大致为由北部港湾至南部港湾递减, 秋季相反。春季多样性指数变化范围在1.15-3.05, 最高值出现在东山, 最低出现在宁德; 秋季多样性指数在2.55-3.65之间, 最高值在东山, 最低值在厦门。分析认为, 浮游植物多样性分布模式受不同水系消长的影响。与历史数据相比, 浮游植物总平均丰度较以往上升, 优势种排序出现变化, 适应高营养盐的种类成为主要优势种。

关键词: 浮游植物, 季节动态, 空间分布, 水系变化, 年际变化, 多样性指数

In this study, species composition, species abundance, and seasonal variation of phytoplankton were surveyed in six Fujian bays, including Ningde, Putian, Meizhou, Xiamen, Zhangpu, and Dongshan from 2010 to 2011. During these surveys, 206 species belonging to 102 genera were identified, and diatoms were the dominant species followed by dinoflagellate species. The bay with the most species was Putian (110), followed by Dongshan (106), Xiamen (100), Zhangpu (95), Meizhou (86), and the least number of species was found in Ningde. Using a seasonal analysis, the amount of phytoplankton species in northern bays was higher than that in the southern bays in the spring, and the reverse was true in the fall. Interestingly, the abundance of phytoplankton species was higher in northern bays than in southern bays in the spring and the reverse was found in the fall. The diversity index ranged from 1.15 to 3.05 in the spring, and was highest in Dongshan, and lowest in Ningde. In the fall, the highest diversity index value was found in Dongshan, and the lowest was found in Xiamen. The results indicated that phytoplankton diversity in this area was mainly controlled by the growth and decline of the Fujian-Zhejiang coastal current and the South China Sea warm current. Compared with historical data, the abundance of phytoplankton has increased, and the species which adapt to high nutrient concentrations become main dominant species.

Key words: phytoplankton, seasonal dynamics, spatial distribution, currents change, interannual variation, diversity indices

图1

福建6个港湾调查站位的分布"

图2

福建6个港湾浮游植物各类别种数"

图3

福建6个港湾浮游植物春秋季种数"

图4

福建6个港湾春季(a)和秋季(b)浮游植物各生态类群物种数"

图5

福建6个港湾浮游植物各生态类群丰度所占比例"

图6

福建6个港湾浮游植物丰度(×103 cells/dm3)"

表1

福建6个港湾浮游植物群落的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')及Pielou均匀度(J)"

宁德 Ningde 莆田 Putian 湄洲 Meizhou 厦门 Xiamen 漳浦 Zhangpu 东山 Dongshan
H' 春季 Spring 1.15 2.31 3.02 2.39 2.68 3.05
秋季 Autumn 2.83 2.58 3.58 2.55 3.22 3.65
J 春季 Spring 0.28 0.69 0.66 0.79 0.61 0.71
秋季 Autumn 0.73 0.72 0.84 0.60 0.72 0.81

图7

春季(A)、秋季(B)福建6个港湾浮游植物群落多维尺度分析。N: 宁德; P: 莆田; M: 湄洲; X: 厦门; Z: 漳浦; D: 东山"

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