生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (10): 1177-1188.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016162

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自然保护地保护成效评估: 进展与展望

王伟, 辛利娟, 杜金鸿, 陈冰, 刘方正, 张立博, 李俊生*()   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院生物多样性研究中心, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-20 接受日期:2016-10-09 出版日期:2016-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 李俊生 E-mail:lijsh@craes.org.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31300453)和环保公益性行业科研专项(201209028)

Evaluating conservation effectiveness of protected areas: advances and new perspectives

Wei Wang, Lijuan Xin, Jinhong Du, Bing Chen, Fangzheng Liu, Libo Zhang, Junsheng Li*()   

  1. Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2016-06-20 Accepted:2016-10-09 Online:2016-10-20
  • Contact: Li Junsheng E-mail:lijsh@craes.org.cn

自然保护地(protected areas)保护成效是指自然保护地对主要保护对象的保护效果, 及其在维持生物多样性和保障生态系统服务功能等方面的综合成效。近年来自然保护地保护成效评估逐渐成为国内外的研究热点之一。 本文分别从不同空间尺度、评估对象、评估方法以及评估指标等方面综述了相关的研究进展。总体来看, 近年来的研究已基本覆盖了全球、区域、国家和单个自然保护地等不同尺度, 针对森林、湿地、草地和荒漠等代表性生态系统以及野生动植物等主要保护对象进行了评估, 发展了“matching”技术等更为有效的分析方法, 探索了系统的自然保护地保护成效评估指标体系, 并应用一些指标进行了保护成效的案例研究。自然保护区(nature reserve)是我国自然保护地的主体, 近年来我国自然保护区相关管理部门也相继开展了保护成效评估工作, 建议未来进一步加强自然保护区网络尺度和各类型自然保护区的保护成效评估研究, 将自然保护区保护成效评估与管理评估相结合, 研究自然保护区保护成效面临的新问题和潜在影响, 为提升我国自然保护区管理质量提供科学依据。

关键词: 自然保护地, 自然保护区, 国家公园, 保护成效, 生物多样性, 主要保护对象

Conservation effectiveness of protected areas indicates the status of main protected objects, and achievements in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. Evaluation of conservation effectiveness is becoming a popular issue surrounding protected areas. From multiple spatial scales, subjects, methods and indicators, we reviewed advances in evaluating conservation effectiveness of protected areas. Recent studies have represented global, regional, national, and individual scales. Evaluated projects include the most common ecosystems (forests, wetlands, grasslands, deserts) and wild species. Evaluation methods have been moving from traditional direct before-and-after or inside-outside comparisons to “matching” techniques, which allows one to control for known landscape or environmental biases when determining the impacts of protection. Some researchers have explored indicator systems to make systematic evaluations of the effectiveness of protected areas, meanwhile others have tested indicators using case studies. In China, nature reserve is the backbone of the country’s protected areas system. Different ministries and state-level authorities have initiated evaluation of conservation effectiveness of nature reserves. We suggest that future studies should explore the following issues to improve the quality of nature reserves: (1) conservation effectiveness of nature reserve networks; (2) conservation effectiveness of different types of reserves; (3) integration of conservation effectiveness and management evaluation; and (4) potential impacts on nature reserves.

Key words: protected areas, nature reserve, national park, conservation effectiveness, biodiversity, main protected objects

图1

世界自然保护地委员会的自然保护地评估框架(改编自Hockings, 2000)"

图2

自然保护地保护成效评估示意。(a)自然保护地内外直接对比分析; (b) “matching”分析。其中A1和B1为自然保护地, A2和B2为自然保护地周边区域, A3和B3为距离自然保护地较远的区域。"

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