生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (11): 1267-1278.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016105

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无人机在生物多样性遥感监测中的应用现状与展望

郭庆华1,*(), 吴芳芳1,2, 胡天宇1, 陈琳海1,2, 刘瑾1, 赵晓倩1,2, 高上1,2, 庞树鑫1   

  1. 1.中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-02 接受日期:2016-11-23 出版日期:2016-11-20 发布日期:2016-12-14
  • 通讯作者: 郭庆华
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41471363, 41401505)

Perspectives and prospects of unmanned aerial vehicle in remote sensing monitoring of biodiversity

Qinghua Guo1,*(), Fangfang Wu1,2, Tianyu Hu1, Linhai Chen1,2, Jin Liu1, Xiaoqian Zhao1,2, Shang Gao1,2, Shuxin Pang1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2016-11-02 Accepted:2016-11-23 Online:2016-11-20 Published:2016-12-14
  • Contact: Guo Qinghua

摘要:

近十年, 无人机平台由于其灵活机动、成本低等优势在植被生态调查、资源环境监测、生物多样性保护等领域逐渐兴起。本文从生物多样性遥感监测应用角度首先介绍了无人机分类系统, 为具体工作开展过程中如何选择合适的载体和传感器提供了参考; 继而总结了不同类型无人机的适用性及其可搭载传感器的用途与区别。在此基础上, 针对无人机平台的高精度遥感信息具体应用案例, 就反映生物多样性变化并揭示其驱动机制方面的无人机遥感直接和间接指标的相关研究进展展开阐述。最后, 就目前无人机遥感技术在生物多样性监测领域的应用中存在的限制, 如软硬件结合匹配程度不够、部分设备过于昂贵、法律法规不完善、与传统生物多样性监测手段结合较弱等问题进行探讨。我们认为: 无人机遥感技术可以很好地弥补地面监测与航天、卫星遥感之间的尺度空缺, 更好地将监测点上的结果以准确、可靠的推绎方法扩展到区域尺度供决策分析使用。今后迫切需要进一步加大生物多样性近地面遥感监测项目建设的实施力度, 从整体上提高生物多样性热点区域应对变化的分析预警能力。

关键词: 无人机, 遥感, 传感器, 激光雷达, 多源数据

Abstract:

During the past decade, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing has been increasingly used in the fields of vegetation inventory, natural resource management, and biodiversity conservation, due to its low cost and high flexibility. In this study, we present a reference for the selection of UAV platforms and remote sensing sensors, by introducing a UAV classification system and summarizing applicability in biodiversity monitoring using remote sensing techniques. For each UAV platform category, we also introduce the characteristics and capabilities of different remote sensing sensors that can be supported. Moreover, through the combination of a case study which collected high-fidelity UAV-based remotely sensed data, we discuss current research progress using UAV-borne remote sensing data to derive direct and indirect biodiversity parameters. Finally, we discuss the current limitations of UAV-based remote sensing platforms for biodiversity monitoring, such as the existing gap between hardware and software, the high cost of certain components (e.g. the initial measurement unit), incomplete laws and regulations, and the disconnect with traditional biodiversity monitoring methods. In summary, we believe that UAV-based remote sensing platforms can greatly help to fill the gaps between terrestrial measurements and aerial/spaceborne measurements, and can increase the accuracy and reliability of upscaling point-based terrestrial measurements to the regional scale. There is a need to launch more projects that address building a UAV-based biodiversity monitoring network, and therefore improve our capability to analyze and forecast biodiversity changes in hotspots.

Key words: UAV, remote sensing, sensors, LiDAR, multi-source data