生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (9): 1045-1055.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016062

• • 上一篇    下一篇

基于生物量的大型底栖动物功能摄食群结构 及生态质量评价

蔡文倩, 刘静, 周娟, 夏阳, 刘录三*()   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护河口与海岸带环境重点实验室, 北京 100012
  • 出版日期:2016-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘录三 E-mail:liuls@craes.org.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41406160)和国家环保公益性行业专项(201309007)

Composition of macrozoobenthos functional feeding groups and assessment of ecological quality using the feeding evenness index calculated from biomass data

Wenqian Cai, Jing Liu, Juan Zhou, Yang Xia, Lusan Liu*()   

  1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Estuary and Coastal Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Online:2016-09-20
  • Contact: Liu Lusan E-mail:liuls@craes.org.cn

基于2011年5月和9月2个航次获取的生物及环境数据, 分析了渤海湾大型底栖动物的功能摄食群组成, 并首次利用以生物量构建的摄食均匀度指数(the feeding evenness index, bjFD)和多元AZTI海洋生物指数(multivariate-biomass AZTI marine biotic index, M-bAMBI)对渤海湾生态质量进行评价。结果表明, 渤海湾大型底栖动物功能群由4类组成, 分别是肉食者、碎屑食者、浮游生物食者和杂食者, 未发现植食者。2个航次均以浮游生物食者和杂食者的生物量最高, 碎屑食者最低。聚类分析结果表明海河口内大型底栖动物群落功能摄食群组成与其他区域明显不同。两个航次均以海河口的重金属潜在生态风险指数值(risk index, RI)较低, 且5月航次该指数沿河口向外有明显的空间分布梯度。bjFD平均值为0.28, 指示研究区大部分区域生态质量较差, 其中低值区集中在海河口、北塘口及其附近海域, 与风险指数值的低值区基本吻合。BEST分析表明温度、盐度、重金属及营养盐等是影响bjFD变化的主要环境因子。与M-bAMBI相比, bjFD对海河口及北塘口较差的环境质量状况更为敏感。总体上, bjFD适用于评价渤海湾的生态质量。

关键词: 大型底栖动物群落, 功能摄食群, 生物量, 摄食均匀度指数, 多元AZTI海洋生物指数, 渤海湾

Based on biological and environmental materials collected during May and September of 2011, the composition of macrozoobenthos functional feeding groups was analyzed. Meanwhile, the feeding evenness index calculated from biomass data, together with M-bAMBI erected using biomass data, were used to assess the ecological quality of Bohai Bay for the first time. Results showed that the macrozoobenthos community was divided into five feeding groups, including a carnivorous group (CA), omnivorous group (OM), planktivorous group (PL), herbivorous group (HE) and detritivorous group (DE). Except for group HE, the other four groups were all sampled in the study area. Groups PL and OM displayed the greatest percentages of community average biomass in both voyages and the group DE displayed the smallest percentage. Cluster analysis indicated that the composition of the macrozoobenthos feeding group in the Haihe Estuary was significantly different from other areas. The risk index (RI) values were relatively lower in the Haihe Estuary than the other areas in the study region. Meanwhile, an obvious spatial gradient was observed along the Haihe estuary towards the offshore area during May 2011. The average feeding evenness index value was 0.28 indicating poor ecological quality in most study areas. In addition, the lower bjFD values were found in the Haihe Estuary, Beitang outlet and their surrounding areas, which was similar to the RI spatial pattern. BEST analysis indicated that temperature, salinity, heavy metals, and nutrients were the main environmental factors affecting the feeding evenness index. Compared with the M-bAMBI, bjFD was more sensitive to the poor environmental quality status of the Haihe Estuary and Beitang outlet. In general, bjFD could be used to evaluate the ecological quality of Bohai Bay.

Key words: macrozoobenthos community, functional feeding groups, biomass, bjFD, M-bAMBI, Bohai Bay

图1

2011年5月和9月航次渤海湾采样点示意图"

表1

渤海湾主要大型底栖动物功能摄食群"

物种 Species 摄食群
Feeding group
物种 Species 食性
Feeding group
中华内卷齿虫 Aglaophamus sinensis CA 双栉虫 Ampharete acutifrons DE
日本鼓虾 Alpheus japonicus CA 中华倍棘蛇尾 Amphioplus sinicus DE
白毛钩虫 Cabira pilargiformis CA 小双鳞蛇尾 Amphipholis squamata DE
日本浪漂水虱 Cirolana japonensis CA 小头虫 Capitella capitata DE
小头栉孔鰕虎鱼 Ctenotrypauchen chinensis CA 刚毛虫 Chaetozone setosa DE
黄海埃刺梳磷虫 Ehersileanira incisa hwanghaiensis CA 细丝鳃虫 Cirratulus filiformis DE
内肋蛤 Eocylichna braunsi CA 须鳃虫 Cirriformia tentaculata DE
渤海格鳞虫 Gattyana pohaiensis CA 三叶针尾涟虫 Diastylis tricincta DE
长吻沙蚕 Glycera chirori CA 内肋蛤 Endopleura lubrica DE
锥唇吻沙蚕 Glycera onomichiensis CA 塞切尔泥钩虾 Eriopisella sechellensis DE
寡节甘吻沙蚕 Glycinde gurjanovae CA 丝异须虫 Heteromastus filiforms DE
日本角吻沙蚕 Goniada japonica CA 异足科索沙蚕 Kuwaita heteropoda DE
色斑角吻沙蚕 Goniada maculata CA 中华后指虫 Laonice sinica DE
软背鳞虫 Lepidonotus helotypus CA 短吻铲荚鎰 Listriolobus brevirostris DE
含糊拟刺虫 Linopherus ambigua CA 中国索沙蚕 Lumbrineris sinensis DE
岩虫 Marphysa sanguinea CA 索沙蚕属一种 Lumbrineris sp. DE
红带织纹螺 Nassarius succinctus CA 尖叶长手沙蚕 Magelona cincta DE
全刺沙蚕 Nectoneanthes oxypoda CA 彩虹明樱蛤 Moerella iridescens DE
纽虫一种 Nemertinea sp. CA 多齿沙蚕 Nereis multignatha DE
寡鳃齿吻沙蚕 Nepthys oligobranchia CA 背蚓虫 Notomastus latericeus DE
狭细蛇潜虫 Ophiodromus angustifrons CA 豆形核桃蛤 Nucula faba DE
拟特须虫 Paralacydonia paradoxa CA 梳鳃虫 Terebellides stroemii DE
格陵兰半突虫 Phyllodoce groenlandica CA 对称拟蚶 Arcopsis symmetrica DE
乳突半突虫 Phyllodoce papillosa CA 双纹须蚶 Barbatia bistrigata DE
肥壮巴豆蟹 Pinnixa tumida CA 大螺赢蜚 Corophium major PL
耳口露齿螺 Ringicula doliaris CA 中华螺赢蜚 Corophium sinensis PL
深钩毛虫 Sigambra bassi CA 小刀蛏 Cultellus attenuatus PL
叉毛卷须虫 Cirrophorus furcatus OM 津知圆蛤 Cycladicama tsuchi PL
异足倒颚蟹 Asthenognathus inaequipes OM 凸镜蛤 Dosinia derupta PL
黄色刺沙蚕 Neanthes flava OM 细螯虾 Leptochela gracilis PL
豆形拳蟹 Philyra pisum OM 微黄镰玉螺 Lunatia yokoyamai PL
扁形动物门一种 Platyhelminthes sp. OM 长偏顶蛤 Modiolus elongatus PL
杂毛虫属一种 Poecilochaetus sp. OM 凸壳肌蛤 Musculus senhousei PL
锯额瓷蟹 Porcellana serratifrons OM 黑龙江篮蛤 Potamocorbula amurensis PL
绒毛细足蟹 Raphidopus ciliatus OM 光滑篮蛤 Potamocorbula laevis PL
哈氏刻肋海胆 Temnopleurus hardwickii OM 秀丽波纹蛤 Raetellops pulchella PL
短角双眼钩虾 Ampelisca brevicornis DE 金星碟铰蛤 Trigonothracia jinxingae PL

图2

渤海湾大型底栖动物功能摄食群组成"

图3

2011年5月和9月航次各功能摄食群的空间分布"

图4

2011年5月(a)和9月(b)航次摄食均匀度指数聚类分析结果"

表2

渤海湾各样点摄食均匀度指数值"

样点
Station
5月
May
9月
September
样点
Station
5月
May
9月
September
样点
Station
5月
May
9月
September
样点
Station
5月
May
9月
September
1 0.38 0.73 14 0.08 0.00 27 0.30 0.00 40 0.19 0.46
2 0.14 0.24 15 0.49 0.28 28 0.31 0.07 41 - 0.06
3 0.55 - 16 0.45 0.71 29 0.38 0.01 42 0.75 0.21
4 0.16 - 17 0.11 0.15 30 0.66 0.01 43 0.27 0.05
5 0.38 0.00 18 0.00 0.64 31 - 0.11 44 - 0.50
6 0.02 0.18 19 0.40 0.06 32 0.04 0.11 45 - 0.35
7 0.44 0.13 20 0.00 0.00 33 0.14 0.27 47 0.33 -
8 0.61 0.76 21 0.00 0.36 34 0.08 0.00 48 0.18 -
9 0.06 0.04 22 0.48 0.64 35 0.45 0.06 49 0.37 -
10 0.27 0.28 23 0.15 0.58 36 - 0.31 50 0.42 -
11 0.06 0.05 24 0.15 0.19 37 0.38 0.64
12 0.31 0.31 25 0.08 0.18 38 0.64 0.37
13 0.30 0.78 26 - 0.62 39 0.22 0.43

图5

2011年5月和9月航次的渤海湾各样点bjFD (a)和M-bAMBI (b)空间分布"

图6

渤海湾2011年5月和9月航次M-bAMBI和bjFD线性回归分析"

图7

渤海湾2011年5月(a)和9月(b)航次生态风险指数(RI)空间分布"

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