生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 378-388.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015241

所属专题: 中国西南干旱河谷的植物多样性

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国西南干旱河谷植物群落的数量分类和排序分析

刘晔1, 李鹏2, 许玥2, 石松林3, 应凌霄2, 张婉君2, 彭培好4, 沈泽昊2, *()   

  1. 1 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院, 深圳 518055。
    2 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871。
    3 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
    4 成都理工大学旅游与城乡规划学院, 成都 610058
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-11 接受日期:2016-02-15 出版日期:2016-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 沈泽昊 E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41371190)和交通运输部西部计划项目(2008 318 799 17)

Quantitative classification and ordination for plant communities in dry valleys of Southwest China

Ye Liu1, Peng Li2, Yue Xu2, Songlin Shi3, Lingxiao Ying2, Wanjun Zhang2, Peihao Peng4, Zehao Shen2, *()   

  1. 1 School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055.
    2 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, the Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871.
    3 State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085.
    4 College of Tourism and Urban-rural Planning, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610058
  • Received:2015-09-11 Accepted:2016-02-15 Online:2016-04-20
  • Contact: Shen Zehao E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn

中国西南干旱河谷植被是我国西南横断山区特有的植被类型, 目前关于西南干旱河谷植被还没有整体性的群落类型划分研究。根据对甘肃、四川、云南三省九条主要河流的干旱河谷段野外调查和文献来源的1,339个植物群落样方数据, 采用自适应仿射传播聚类方法, 对我国西南干旱河谷的植物群落进行数量分类, 并采用典范对应分析方法进行排序分析。结果表明: (1)调查样方的植物群落分为7个植被型(稀树草原、肉质灌丛、常绿阔叶灌丛、暖性落叶阔叶灌丛、常绿硬叶林、落叶阔叶林和暖性针叶林), 24个群系, 31个群丛类型。暖性落叶阔叶灌丛是本植被区的代表性植被类型; 分布最广的群系为鞍叶羊蹄甲灌丛(Form. Bauhinia brachycarpa, 样方比例50.9%)、黄茅灌草丛(Form. Heteropogon contortus, 样方比例11.9%)、孔颖草灌草丛(Form. Bothriochloa pertusa, 样方比例5.6%)、黄荆灌丛(Form. Vitex negundo, 样方比例4.2%)、知风草灌草丛(Form. Eragrostis ferruginea, 样方比例3.8%)、车桑子灌丛(Form. Dodonaea viscosa, 样方比例3.4%)、云南松疏林(Form. Pinus yunnanensis, 样方比例3.3%)。(2)冬季低温和降水的季节性是限制干旱河谷植物群落分布的主要气候因子。稀树草原、肉质灌丛是典型的干热河谷植被类型; 暖性落叶阔叶灌丛、常绿硬叶林、常绿阔叶灌丛是干暖河谷植被的优势类型; 暖性针叶林、落叶阔叶林则主要在干温河谷环境占优势。

关键词: 中国西南干旱河谷, 植被分类与排序, 自适应仿射传播聚类, 典范对应分析, 植被分区, 气候响应

The vegetation in dry valleys of Southwest China is characterized by unique vegetation type. Based on plant community sample data (1,339 plots) collected for 9 valleys in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, we used an adaptive affinity propagation method for quantitative classification, and performed an ordination using canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed that the plant communities can be divided into 7 vegetation types (savanna, succulent thicket, evergreen broadleaved thicket, warm deciduous broadleaved thicket, evergreen sclerophyllous forest, deciduous broadleaved forest, warm needle-leaved forest with 24 formations and 31 associations. The most representative vegetation type was the warm deciduous broadleaved thicket, while the most common formations were Form. Bauhinia brachycarpa (50.9%), Form. Heteropogon contortus (11.9%), Form. Bothriochloa pertusa (5.6%), Form. Vitex negundo (4.2%), Form. Eragrostis ferruginea (3.8%), Form. Dodonaea viscosa (3.4%) and Form. Pinus yunnanensis (3.3%). Mean temperature of the coldest month and precipitation seasonality are two dominant climatic factors, which limit the distribution of plant community types in the dry valleys. Savanna and succulent thicket are the dominant vegetation types in typical dry-hot valleys. Dry-warm valley are dominated by warm deciduous broadleaved thicket, evergreen sclerophyllous forest and evergreen broadleaved thicket. Warm needle-leaved forest and deciduous broadleaved forest are more adaptive to lower temperatures.

Key words: dry valleys of Southwest China, vegetation classification and ordination, adaptive-affinity propagation, canonical correspondence analysis, vegetation division, climate response

图1

中国西南干旱河谷的研究区域及样点分布(中国全图审图号GS(2008)1157号)"

表1

中国西南干旱河谷植被分类表"

植被型纲
Vegetation type class
植被型亚纲
Vegetation type
subclass
植被型
Vegetation type
群系
Formation
群丛
Association
I 草本植被
Herbaceous
I-1 旱生草本植被
Xeropoium
一 稀树草原
Savanna
1 从毛羊胡子草灌草丛
Form. Eriophorum comosum
1-1 叶下珠+牛角瓜-从毛羊胡子草群丛
Ass. Phyllanthus urinaria+Calotropis gigantea-Eriophorum comosum
2 短梗苞茅灌草丛
Form. Hyparrhenia diplandra
2-1 黄花菜+矛叶荩草-短梗苞茅群丛
Ass. Hemerocallis citrina+Arthraxon lanceolatus-Hyparr- henia diplandra
3 黄茅灌草丛
Form. Heteropogon contortus
3-1 密花树+清香木-戟叶酸模群丛
Ass. Myrsine seguinii+Pistacia weinmanniifolia-Rumex hastatus
3-2 胡枝子+狭叶海漆-类芦群丛
Ass. Lespedeza bicolor+Excoecaria acerifolia var. cuspidata- Neyraudia reynaudiana
3-3 洋紫荆+枣-黄茅群丛
Ass. Bauhinia variegata +Ziziphus jujuba-Heteropogon contortus
3-4 芸香草+竹叶草-黄茅群丛
Ass. Cymbopogon distans+Oplismenus compositus var. compositus-Heteropogon contortus
4 孔颖草灌草丛
Form. Bothriochloa pertusa
4-1 土沉香+橿子栎-孔颖草群丛
Ass. Aquilaria sinensis+Quercus baronii-Bothriochloa pertusa
4-2 猪毛菜+戟叶酸模-孔颖草群丛
Ass. Salsola collina+Rumex hastatus-Bothriochloa pertusa
5 木棉灌草丛
Form. Bombax ceiba
5-1 芦苇-木棉群丛
Ass. Phragmites australis-Bombax ceiba
6 牛角瓜灌草丛
Form. Calotropis gigantea
6-1 九叶木蓝+孔颖草-牛角瓜群丛
Ass. Indigofera linnaei+Bothriochloa pertusa-Calotropis gigantea
7 双花草灌草丛
Form. Dichanthium annulatum
7-1 牡蒿+龙珠果-双花草群丛
Ass. Artemisia japonica +Passiflora foetida-Dichanthium annulatum
8 芸香草灌草丛
Form. Cymbopogon distans
8-1 地果+长节耳草-芸香草群丛
Ass. Ficus tikoua+Hedyotis uncinella-Cymbopogon distans
9 知风草灌草丛
Form. Eragrostis ferruginea
9-1 鞍叶羊蹄甲+野丁香-野菊+知风草群丛
Ass. Bauhinia brachycarpa+Leptodermis potaninii -Chrysan- themum indicum+Eragrostis ferruginea
II 灌丛
Scrub
II-1 刺灌丛及
肉质灌丛
Thom thicket and succulent thicket
二 肉质灌丛
Succulent thicket
10 仙人掌灌丛
Form. Opuntia dillenii
10-1 黑麦草+白饭树-仙人掌群丛
Ass. Lolium perenne+Flueggea virosa-Opuntia dillenii
11 霸王鞭灌丛
Form. Euphorbia royleana
11-1 孔颖草+白饭树-霸王鞭群丛
Ass. Bothriochloa pertusa +Flueggea virosa-Euphorbia royleana
II-2 阔叶灌丛
Broadleaved thicket
三 常绿阔叶灌丛
Evergreen broadleaved thicket
12 清香木灌丛
Form. Pistacia weinmanniifolia
12-1 细花梗杭子梢+云南山蚂蝗-黄茅+虾子花+清香木群丛
Ass. Campylotropis capillipes+Desmodium yunnanense- Heteropogon contortus+Woodfordia fruticosa+Pistacia weinmanniifolia
13 车桑子灌丛
Form. Dodonaea viscosa
13-1 木香花+光叶巴豆-黄茅+车桑子群丛
Ass. Rosa banksiae +Croton laevigatus-Heteropogon contortus+Dodonaea viscosa
四 暖性落叶阔叶灌丛
Warm deciduous broadleaved thicket
14 光叶山黄麻灌丛
Form. Trema cannabina
14-1 细柄野荞+黄花稔-光叶山黄麻群丛
Ass. Fagopyrum gracilipes+Sida acuta-Trema cannabina
15 狭叶山黄麻灌丛
Form. Trema angustifolia
15-1 羽芒菊+狭叶山黄麻-狭叶山黄麻群丛
Ass. Tridax procumbens+Trema angustifolia-Trema angustifolia
16 鞍叶羊蹄甲灌丛
Form. Bauhinia brachycarpa
16-1 小叶荩草+北艾-鞍叶羊蹄甲群丛
Ass. Arthraxon lancifolius+Artemisia vulgaris-Bauhinia brachycarpa
17 华西小石积灌丛
Form. Osteomeles schwerinae
17-1 香茶菜+裸叶粉背蕨-华西小石积群丛
Ass. Isodon amethystoides+Aleuritopteris duclouxii- Osteomeles schwerinae
表1 (续) Table 1 (continued)
植被型纲
Vegetation type class
植被型亚纲
Vegetation type
subclass
植被型
Vegetation type
群系
Formation
群丛
Association
II 灌丛
Scrub
II-2 阔叶灌丛
Broadleaved thicket
四 暖性落叶阔叶灌丛
Warm deciduous broadleaved thicket
18 余甘子灌丛
Form. Phyllanthus emblica
18-1 垫状卷柏+翻白草-余甘子群丛
Ass. Selaginella pulvinata+Potentilla discolor-Phyllanthus emblica
19 云南山蚂蝗灌丛
Form. Desmodium yunnanense
19-1 扭鞘香茅+类芦-云南山蚂蝗群丛
Ass. Cymbopogon tortilis+Neyraudia reynaudiana- Desmodium yunnanense
20 黄荆灌丛
Form. Vitex negundo
20-1 碱菀+川甘亚菊-黄荆群丛
Ass. Tripolium pannonicum+Ajania potaninii-Vitex negundo
21 细叶黄皮灌丛
Form. Clausena anisum-olens
21-1 细叶黄皮群丛
Ass. Clausena anisum-olens
III 森林
Forest
III-1 阔叶林
Broadleaved forest
五 常绿硬
叶林
Evergreen sclerophyllous forest
22 铁橡栎林
Form. Quercus cocciferoides
22-1 香附子+短炳扁担杆-铁橡栎群丛
Ass. Cyperus rotundus+Grewia brachypoda-Quercus cocciferoides
六 落叶阔
叶林
Deciduous broadleaved forest
23 乌桕林
Form. Triadica sebifera
23-1 乌桕+藿香蓟-乌桕群丛
Ass. Triadica sebifera+Ageratum conyzoides-Triadica sebifera
23-2 有芒鸭嘴草+乌桕-乌桕群丛
Ass. Ischaemum aristatum var. aristatum+Triadica sebifera-Triadica sebifera
III-2 针叶林
Coniferous forest
七 暖性针
叶林
Warm needle- leaved forest
24 云南松疏林
Form. Pinus yunnanensis
24-1 马缨丹+刺叶栎-云南松群丛
Ass. Lantana camara+Quercus spinosa-Pinus yunnanensis
24-2 栓皮栎+南烛-云南松群丛
Ass. Quercus variabilis+Vaccinium bracteatum-Pinus yunnanensis
24-3 云南松+普通针毛蕨-云南松群丛
Ass. Pinus yunnanensis+Macrothelypteris torresiana-Pinus yunnanensis

图2

中国西南干旱河谷的植被群系空间分布。不同颜色代表不同植被型。"

图3

7类植被型群落样方的CCA排序。1: 稀树草原; 2: 肉质灌丛; 3: 常绿阔叶灌丛; 4: 暖性落叶阔叶灌丛; 5: 常绿硬叶林; 6: 落叶阔叶林; 7: 暖性针叶林。MAT: 年均温; MTCM: 最冷月均温; TSN: 气温季节性; MAP: 年降水量; k: 干燥指数; PSN: 降水季节性。"

图4

不同植被型分布区的环境因子均值与标准偏差。1: 稀树草原; 2: 肉质灌丛; 3: 常绿阔叶灌丛; 4: 暖性落叶阔叶灌丛; 5: 常绿硬叶林; 6: 落叶阔叶林; 7: 暖性针叶林。"

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