生物多样性 ›› 2006, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (4): 352-358.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.050263

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

海南黑脸琵鹭的越冬行为分析

张国钢1, 梁伟2, 楚国忠1*   

  1. 1 (中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091)
    2 (海南师范大学生物系, 海口 571158)
  • 收稿日期:2005-12-13 修回日期:2006-06-26 出版日期:2006-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 楚国忠

Wintering behavior of black-faced spoonbill in Hainan Island

Guogang Zhang 1, Wei Liang2, Guozhong Chu1*   

  1. 1 Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    2 Department of Biology, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158
  • Received:2005-12-13 Revised:2006-06-26 Online:2006-07-20
  • Contact: Guozhong Chu

黑脸琵鹭(Platalea minor)是全球濒危鸟类之一。海南北黎湾是继我国香港和台湾之后发现的黑脸琵鹭第三个重要的越冬地。为了深入了解黑脸琵鹭在该地的保护状况, 以及影响其种群越冬的致危因素, 作者于2004年1–3月, 采用瞬时扫描和焦点动物观察法对北黎湾黑脸琵鹭的越冬行为进行了观察。结果表明: (1)在黑脸琵鹭的各种行为中, 休息行为所占的比例最大, 为69.72%; 其次是站立行为, 为10.42%; 护理行为位居第3, 占10.36%; 位移、取食和社会行为在白天所占的比例相对较低。(2)白天黑脸琵鹭休息行为有明显的高峰和低谷, 8:00–17:00主要以休息为主, 而在17:00以后, 休息行为明显减少, 护理、取食和站立行为有所增加。位移和社会行为发生率较低, 呈间歇性变化。黑脸琵鹭各种行为之间在持续时间上有显著差异, 其中以休息行为持续时间最长, 其次是取食行为, 而行走行为持续时间最短。(3)黑脸琵鹭的取食频次在各时间段也有显著的差异, 在16:00以后取食的频次较高。(4)黑脸琵鹭的取食行为受潮汐的影响, 过高和过低的水位都将影响其取食活动。最后针对性地提出了黑脸琵鹭及其越冬地的保护和管理计划。

关键词: 浮游动物, 群落生态, 长江三峡, 水库

Black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor) is a globally endangered species. From January to March 2004, win-tering behavior of black-faced spoonbills was observed during the day in Beili Bay, Dongfang County, Hainan Island, using scan and focal sampling methods. During the day, the proportion of resting was much higher than other activities. Only in the morning and at dusk, the spoonbills foraged at mudflats, not at ponds nearby where there were human disturbances. There was a remarkable peak and valley in resting. From 8:00–17:00, the birds often rest at the mudflats. A small increase in foraging, maintenance and standing behaviors occurred after 17:00. However, there was a lower frequency of locomotion and social behaviors, and no remarkable peak and valley. There were significant differences among the duration of different be-haviors, with resting occurring for 491.4 ± 595.9 s and walking for 15.3 ± 20.5 s. In addition, there is re-markable difference in feeding frequency among the different time periods, with higher frequency recorded after 16:00 everyday. Further, there is close relationship between feeding frequency and tidal level, and higher and lower tidal level has a negative effect on feeding frequency. During the periods of observation, some threats were found, such as seafood collecting, ocean pollution and illegal hunting. Some recom-mendation for conservation and management are proposed.

Key words: cladoceran, zooplankton, community ecology, Yangtze River

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