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Table of Content
    Volume 25 Issue 8
    20 August 2017

    On Hainan Island, 24 species of Gesneriaceae are naturally distributed, among which eight are endemic. Ling et al (pages 847–815) studied the distribution patterns and phylogenetic relationships of Gesneriaceae in Hainan Island: (for details see. The pictures show the eight Hainan-endemic species. From the upper to bottom, they are Metapetrocosmea peltata, Paraboea changjiangensis, and Oreocharis dasyantha in the left column; Chirita heterotricha and Paraboea hainanensis in the middle column; Oreocharis flavida, O. dasyantha var. ferruginose, and Cathayanthe biflora in the right column. (The picture of Paraboea hainanensis was taken by Weibin Xu, and others are provided by Mingxun Ren.)

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    All Papers in This Issue
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  0-0. 
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    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    Potential distribution range and conservation strategies for the endangered species Amygdalus pedunculata
    Jianmin Chu, Yifu Li, Lei Zhang, Bin Li, Mingyuan Gao, Xiaoqian Tang, Jianwei Ni, Xinqiao Xu
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  799-806.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015218
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    The endangered shrub species Amygdalus pedunculata is distributed in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Shaanxi Province, China. However, little is known about its resource quantity and conservation status. A field investigation was conducted to determine the natural distribution range of A. pedunculata. Eight environmental factors were chosen to build models with the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) model and maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model. We predicted the potential distribution of A. pedunculata in China. Using four model evaluation metrics (Kappa, true skill statistic (TSS), overall accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)), we assessed the predictive performance of both models. The Jackknife method was used to investigate the most important environmental factors for the distribution of A. pedunculata. The results indicated that both models were effective for predicting the distribution of A. pedunculata, but MaxEnt performed better than GARP in terms of the four evaluation metrics. The species was predicted to have a broad suitable area, which ranged from the south of Daxing’anling to the east of Helan Mountains and the Ulan Buh Desert. Amygdalus pedunculata is mainly distributed in the middle regions of Inner Mongolia, including Mu Us Sandy Land, Kubuqi desert, Otindag Sandy Land, and the Wulashan and Daqingshan Mountains. Low suitable sites occurred in some regions of Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi. Besides, and there were some sporadic low suitable areas in the middle regions of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Gansu Province. Variable importance analysis showed that the variables relevant to precipitation had more significant effects on the geographic distribution of A. pedunculata. These results have important implications for resource conservation and ecology including the revegetation of semi-arid ecosystems.

    Gesneriaceae on Hainan Island: distribution patterns and phylogenetic relationships
    Shaojun Ling, Qianwan Meng, Liang Tang, Mingxun Ren
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  807-815.  doi:10.17520/biods.2016360
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    Hainan Island offers an excellent opportunity to study biodiversity and biogeography as it is the biggest tropical island in China while its flora evolution and biogeographic patterns have remained largely unexplored. Gesneriaceae is a typical tropical plant family, showing diversification centers in southwestern China and the Malay Archipelago. Hainan Island is located between these two ‘hotspots’. In this study, area-adjusted species density and endemic indices of Gesneriaceae on Hainan Island were compared with nearby regions including Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Vietnam. The detailed distribution patterns of Gesneriaceae on Hainan Island were also explored by comparing species diversity and endemic proportions among different mountains and altitudes. We also used nuclear ITS1/2 and chloroplast trnL-F sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree of Gesneriaceae on Hainan Island to study dispersal histories and the speciation time of Hainan-endemic species. Our results showed that, although Hainan Island has only 24 Gesneriaceae species, of which eight species and two genera are endemic, it also was characterized by a very high area-adjusted species diversity and endemic index due to its small geographical area. Hainan Gesneriaceae were distributed mainly in high mountainous regions such as Mt. Wuzhi, Mt. Jianfeng, and Mt. Yingge and showed the highest species diversity at both 400-1,000 m and >1,400 m a.s.l. The molecular data showed that two endemic monotypic genera, i.e. Metapetrocosme and Cathayanthe, evolved at about 12 Ma, which may have been triggered by the monsoon climate (formed at about 28 Ma). Hainan contains the most basal taxa of Asian Gesneriaceae and shared these with Southeast Asia, suggesting Hainan Gesneriaceae largely originated from Southeast Asia, instead of the Chinese mainland. However, the great similarity of species composition between Hainan Island and the geographically-closest province, i.e. Guangdong, proves that Hainan flora experienced frequent species exchanges with the Chinese mainland recently, likely during the late Tertiary (~3 Ma) when the island was connected with the Chinese mainland.

    Families and genera of seed plants in relation to biogeographical origin on Hainan Island
    Hua Zhu
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  816-822.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017009
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    The theory that Hainan Island could have been in contact with northern Vietnam and Guangxi during the Eocene and drifted to its present location by moving southeast with the uplift of the Himalayas and extrusion of the Indochina block was recently suggested. To further discuss the biogeographical origin of Hainan Island, 5 families and 36 genera of seed plants on the island were examined in this paper. These families and genera have species that show a distribution pattern of southern and southeastern Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi, and Hainan in China. Life forms of these taxa include trees, shrubs, lianas and herbs, which are present in various tropical forests in these regions. The logical and reasonable explanation for the distribution pattern is that Hainan Island could have been in contact with northern Vietnam and Guangxi. This paper presents information on these families and genera of biogeographical importance, specifically in relation to the origin of Hainan Island for further studies on molecular biogeography, phylogeography and genetic diversity.

    Composition and geographical affinity of the tree species Caryota obtusa forests in the Honghe region, SW China
    Wenhong Chen, Jipu Shi, Jun Wen, Shiwei Guo, Yanfen Chang, Yumin Shui
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  823-829.  doi:10.17520/biods.2016289
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    Caryota obtusa forests are characterized as showy vegetation with rich species diversity and a unique habitat in the Honghe region of China. Due to its food and horticulture value, mature Caryota obtusa individuals have become more rare in the field. Here, we sampled six plots in a deep karst valley of the Honghe region of Yunnan, China. In each 20 m × 20 m plot, our examination focused on species composition of trees via the measure of any trees with DBH ≥ 4 cm. Importance values were produced from datasets of their relative abundance (RA), relative frequency (RF), and relative prominence (RP). On one hand, we analyzed the composition and geographical affinity of the tree species in Caryota obtusa forests based on the two patterns of geographic distributions (areal-type and natural geographic unit), respectively. On the other hand, we selected the top 5 dominant tree species based on importance value and illustrated their distributions to confirm the position of sampled vegetation in the background of the entire distribution of the target species. The above survey and analysis revealed that there were 67 tree species contained in the sampled vegetation, which was a Caryota obtusa + Streblus macrophyllus community and the geographic affinity of the vegetation belonged to the geographic unit of IndoChina Peninsula with some strong karst background. Our study implies that the vegetation sampled here reached its northernmost distribution and deserves to be prioritized in conservation as it is a biodiversity hotspot in IndoChina Peninsula.

    Original Papers: Animal Diversity
    Low-head dams driving the homogenization of local habitat and fish assemblages in upland streams of the Qingyi River
    Qianting Bu, Xian Li, Ren Zhu, Ling Chu, Yunzhi Yan
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  830-839.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017108
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    Identifying how fish assemblages in upland streams respond to environmental changes and anthropogenic activities is the basis for the conservation and management of upland stream systems and fish diversity. Based on data collected from 78 sampling sites (including 39 impounding areas and 39 free-flowing segments, respectively) associated with 39 low-head dams in four 1st-order streams of the Qingyi basin in Anhui Province, we investigated the effect of low-head dam on the habitat homogenization and the biotic homogenization of fish assemblages in upland streams. A total of 27 species representing 10 families and 5 orders were collected, among which 23 and 27 species were collected from the impounding and free-flowing areas, respectively. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) results showed that the local habitat differed significantly between impounding and free-flowing areas, the former characterized by relatively low substrate coarseness and heterogeneity and the latter showing shallower water depth and width. Permutational analysis of multivariate dispersions (PERMDISP) result indicated that the heterogeneity in spatial variability of the local habitat was significantly lower in the impounding areas than the free-flowing areas, suggesting habitat homogeneity in the impoundments of low-head dams. The variations in the coefficient of similarity of fish assemblages in the impoundments relative to that found in the free-flowing segments were consistent across the four study streams and the two sampling seasons. Compared with that in the free-flowing segments, the between-assemblage similarities for fishes in the impoundments either increased or decreased, of which ΔCSJ was negatively related to the initial similarity of fish assemblages. ΔCSJ was positive when the initial similarity was lower than 50%, while ΔCSJ was negative when the initial similarity was more than 50%. Our results suggest that low-head dams may decrease the spatial variability in local habitat within the impounding areas of dams and result in the homogeneity of the local habitat. However, the variations in fish assemblages within these impoundments include two ecological processes, i.e., biotic homogeneity and heterogeneity. The biotic homogeneity/heterogeneity depends on the size of the initial similarity between different assemblages. The assemblages showing relatively low initial similarity will be homogenized and those of high initial similarity will be heterogenized.

    The current status and conservation of otters on the coastal islands of Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, China
    Fei Li, Xi Zheng, Huarong Zhang, Jianhuan Yang, Bosco Pui Lok Chan
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  840-846.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017130
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    Otters are rare and threatened in China, but both research and conservation efforts on this specialized group of mammals are largely overlooked. To provide baseline information on the current conservation status of otters in coastal Guangdong Province, we conducted rapid otter surveys using semi-structured interviews, transects, camera-trapping surveys, and a molecular study of the coastal islands of Zhuhai City between September 2016 and March 2017. Data collected suggested a dramatic decline of otter populations and the local extirpation of otters was reported on several islands. The discovery of a remnant population of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) on Hengqin Island provides hopes for the recovery of this species in South China. Nonetheless, the future of Hengqin’s otter is at stake due to the rapid urbanization of suitable habitats for economic development. To ensure its continual survival, critical habitats on Hengqin Island should be strictly protected as soon as possible. Furthermore, systematic, otter-specific surveys should be conducted in other coastal areas of China, to best devise a national otter conservation plan.

    Identification of Cynoglossus joyneri eggs and larvae by DNA barcoding and morphological method
    Xiaomeng Zhou, Shuxin Guo, Na Song, Xiumei Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  847-855.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017094
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    This study was designed to accurately identify Cynoglossus eggs and larvae (Cynoglossus sp.), and to accumulate base data for further study on the taxonomy and early identification of Cynoglossus fishes. Cynoglossus sp. samples were collected in Qingshan Bay, Qingdao, between May and October 2015. Three eggs, 3 larvae and a total of 5 individuals from 2 species (C. joyneri and C. lighti) in the Jiaozhou Bay area were barcoded using COI, sequenced, and compared with 6 Cynoglossus species found in the Shandong Peninsula and recorded in GenBank. Under a light microscope, the egg had a circular shape and floated within a wider perivitelline space; eggs ranged in diameter from 0.68 to 0.87 mm with a mean diameter of 0.73±0.03 mm; eggs had a single layer membrane and were smooth and transparent; the oil globules were located opposite the yolk sac, ranged from 6 to 15 in number, and diameter ranged from 0.04 to 0.10 mm (mean diameter: 0.07±0.01 mm); there were obvious characteristics including the 2 dorsal fin rays and pigmentation and body length changes in the period of metamorphosis for larvae identification. Results of genetic analysis showed that the average K2P distances pairwise-species in Cynoglossus sp., C. joyneri and C.lighti ranged from 0.006 to 0.009, and was 0.002 for C. abbreviatus and C. purpureomaculatus. The two groups were placed in two different clades with the support of a high bootstrap value and had a close genetic relationship, separately. The neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees were constructed for COI gene sequences of 8 species using MEGA 6.0, and Zebrias zebra was included as an outgroup. The above analysis and results showed that the Cynoglossus sp. is C. joyneri.

    Original Papers: Microbial Diversity
    Diversity of Bacillus-like species isolated from potato rhizosphere soils in Yili, Xinjiang
    Guohong Liu, Bo Liu, Jianmei Che, Qianqian Chen, Naiquan Lin, Weidong Cui
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  856-863.  doi:10.17520/biods.2016348
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    This study aims to understand the diversity of Bacillus-like species found in potato rhizosphere soils in Xinjiang, and provide a basis for mining new resources. Bacillus-like bacteria were isolated from potato rhizosphere soils using the cultivable method and preliminarily identified based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The spatial distribution pattern of the Bacillus-like bacteria was analyzed using frequency distribution and number. A total of 349 Bacillus-like isolates were obtained from 30 soil samples, and identified as 66 species belonging to 9 genera and 2 families (Bacillaceae and Paenibacillaceae) within Bacilli by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sixty six selective strains were chosen to be further analyzed based on colony morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequences, and 14 strains were potential novel species based on the lower similarities found between 93.0-98.5% in their closed references type strains. The species numbers of each genus were 41 for Bacillus (41/66, 62.1%), 9 for Paenibacillus (9/66, 13.6%), 6 for Lysinibacillus (6/66, 9.1%), 4 for Pscychrobacillus (4/66, 6.1%), 2 for Fictibacillus (2/66, 3.0%), and 1 for Brevibacillus, Oceanibacillus, Rummelibacillus and Aneurinibacillus, respectively. In the potato rhizosphere soils, the content range of Bacillus-like species were 2.20-8.86×104 cfu/g. The highest colony content and Bacillus-like species, e.g. 8.86×104 cfu/g and 37 species, respectively, occurred in the Mongolian township of Tekes, while the lowest colony content was found in a stud-farm in Nilka County and the lowest Bacillus-like species (9 species) were found in Xigou Village of Fukang City and on the way from Tekes to Zhaosu County. There was large difference in the distribution of Bacillus-like species in the potato rhizosphere soils, but each site was characterized by the same dominant species, Bacillus simplex and Bacillus aryabhattai. Based on their occurrence frequency, the Bacillus-like species could be discriminated as high frequency species including Bacillus simplex, middle frequency species including Bacillus endophyticus, and low frequency species including Bacillus mycoides. Based on the number of Bacillus-like species, 9 collecting sites were divided into two groups, namely high content and richness and low content and richness. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the distribution of Bacillus-like species and altitude. Thus, there were many Bacillus-like species in potato rhizosphere soils, which provide rich resources for exploring functional strains.

    Methods of wind pollination
    Yaru Zhu, Yanbing Gong
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  864-873.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017069
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    The transfer of pollen in most seed plants relies on diverse pollination vectors. In comparison with animal pollination (zoophily), wind pollination (anemophily) has long been regarded as an inefficient mode and thus has received relatively little attention. However, the majority of gymnosperm species and over 10% of angiosperm species are wind pollinated, and the evolution of wind pollination from insect-pollinated ancestors has occurred at least 65 times in angiosperms. Furthermore, ambophily, a combination of wind and insect pollination, is also reported frequently. More refined methods are thus seriously needed to explore the existence and mechanisms of wind pollination in diverse ecosystems. In this paper, we explore the scope of anemophily research by describing the species and habitat diversities of wind-pollinated plants. In field experiments, we recommend using pollen traps (sticky slides or airborne particle samplers) to quantify airborne pollen, and conducting pollinator exclusion, bagging, and emasculation treatments to explore the reproductive contribution of anemophily and the possibilities of zoophily, autogamy, and apomixis. In constrained field conditions, researchers can bring relevant plant tissues back to the laboratory for experiments examining aerodynamics, i.e., measuring the settling velocity of pollen using stroboscopic photography or drop towers, calculating the pollination efficiency using wind tunnels, and evaluating the aerodynamics based on computer models in different simulated conditions. Furthermore, the abiotic and biotic factors (wind pollination syndromes) associated with anemophily should also be studied to explore the causes as well as the ecological and evolutionary consequences of wind pollination. The above methods cannot substitute for one another, as researchers should use them as a comprehensive unit when possible to reveal the details and mechanisms of wind pollination.

    Systematics and species diversity of botryosphaeriaceous fungi
    Wenying Li, Xia Li, Kaizhi Xie, Wangqiu Deng, Wenying Zhuang
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  874-885.  doi:10.17520/biods.2016314
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    Botryosphaeriaceous fungi are an important ascomycete group (Botryosphaeriales, Dothideomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota). They play essential roles in economic and ecological environments, especially in agroforestry ecosystems. In this overview, we introduce a wide variety of ecological functions of botryosphaeriaceous fungi. The taxonomic studies of the family Botryosphaeriaceae in its early stages have been reviewed in details since 1823, especially the two major classification systems proposed by von Arx & Müller and Barr. The research status, progress based on holomorphological characteristics and multilocus DNA sequence data are summarized towards updating our understanding of species diversity and classification systems of the group. In addition, the research history, current status and work to be done of the group in China are briefly stated. Problems regarding biodiversity and phylogeny are discussed. Research perspectives are proposed based on taxonomic features, species concepts and exploration of bioresources. This review is expected to provide useful information about effective utilization of fungal resources and control of the harmful effects of botryosphaeriaceous fungi.

    China’s mammal diversity (2nd edition)
    Zhigang Jiang, Shaoying Liu, Yi Wu, Xuelong Jiang, Kaiya Zhou
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  886-895.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017098
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    Due to recent modifications of mammalian taxonomy, discoveries of mammalogy in China, and conservation needs of the country, China’s mammal diversity inventory is in urgent need of an update. We collected new species and records of mammal species in China from the literature since March 2015, adopted the new taxonomy, incorporated our own research, and added mammalian species of the Zangnan Region, to renew the inventory of mammal diversity in the country. The major changes in the new version of the inventory are the elevation of the order Cetartiodactyla to the super order Cetartiodactyla and the split of the order Cetartiodactyla in Jiang et al (2015) into orders Cetacea and Artiodactyla, respectively. Chodsigoa hoffmanni C. furva and Mesechinus sp. were added to the order Eulipotyphla. In the order Chiroptera, Murina fanjingshanensis, Myotis rufoniger and Rhinolophus subbadius were added, while Myotis hirsutus and Miniopterus fuscus were deleted from the inventory. In the order Primates, Hoolock tianxing, Trachypithecus pileatus, Nycticebus coucang and Hoolock hoolock were added to the inventory. In the order Carnivora, Melursus ursinus, Canis aureus, Vulpes bengakensis, Herpestes edwardsii, and Felis viverrinus were added. We reclassified the species in the order Artiodactyla according to the taxonomy of the Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Vol. 2, Ungulates. Ovis ammon, O. collium, Budorcas taxicolor, and Muntiacus muntjak were added to the order. All sika deer in the country were grouped as a single species, Cervus nippon, and all moose were grouped as a single species, Alces alces. Cervus alashanicus and C. macneilli as well as the dwarf blue sheep, Psuodois sharferi, were deleted, and the species of the Tragulus in Xishuangbanna was listed as Tragulus sp. In the order Cetacea, Platanista gangetica was added while Delphinus capensis was deleted. In the order Rodentia, new species, Typhlomys nanus, Neodon medogensis and N. nyalamensis, Bandicota bengalensis as well as Myospalax cansus, Biswamoyopterus biswasi, Niviventer niviventer, Mus booduga; and one species, Typhlomys daloushanensis, which was elevated from the status of subspecies, were added to the inventory, however, Hadromys humei was deleted from the inventory. The taxonomy of Arvicolini of Cricetidae was renewed. Caprolagus hispidus and Lepus nigricollis were added to the order Lagomorpha and the taxonomy of Ochotona was renewed, with 5 species downgraded from the status of species to subspecies while 4 were elevated from subspecies to species. Altogether there are 29 pika species in China. However, O. princeps, O. collaris, O. hoffinanni, O. rufescens and O. pusilla are not found in the country. The new inventory of China’s mammals has 13 orders, 56 families, 248 genera and 693 species. Compared with that reported by Jiang et al (2015), there is now an additional order, family, three genera and 20 species in the new mammalian diversity inventory. Of the mammalian species in country, the statuses of 18 species, mostly rodents, are still in dispute amongst mammalogists. There are 146 endemic mammalian species in China, which accounted for 21% of the total mammal species in the country. Of those endemic species by order, the highest endemic rate is found in Lagomorpha (37%), followed by Eulipotyphla (35%) and Artiodactyla (25%). Overall, China has the richest mammal diversity in the world.

    Mammal resource status in the mountain forest ecosystems of southern Anhui Province based on camera trap data
    Kai Liu, Jun He, Jihui Zhang, Jun Feng, Qiang Yu, Changming Gu, Hailong Wu
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  896-903.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017031
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    To examine the diversity and abundance of mammals in the mountain forest ecosystems of southern mountainous areas in Anhui Province, a total of 121 cameras were installed at eight sample plots including two national and five provincial nature reserves and the Huangshan Mountain Scenic Area between July 2013 and October 2015. In total, 6,375 trap days and 1,361 effective independent photographs were collected. 19 species belonging to 5 orders and 12 families were recorded. The first five species of photographic rate and relative abundance index were Muntiacus reevesi, Sus scrofa, Macaca thibetana, Callosciurus erythraeus, and Arctonyx collaris. Except Macaca thibetana, the other four species among the five and Paguma larvata were widely distributed in mountainous areas of south Anhui Province. For those species under special state protection, the relative abundance index of Macaca mulatta was nearly two fifths of Macaca thibetana; the relative abundance index of Muntiacus crinifrons was nearly one fifth of Muntiacus reevesi; Martes flavigula and Capricornis sumatraensis was about one fourth of Muntiacus crinifrons. The relative abundance index of Ursus thibetanus was minimal among these recorded species. Compared to historical records collected thirty years ago, Ursus thibetanus was the sole large species in Carnivora captured by camera traps in this study, which indicates that the top predators, including Panthera pardus, Neofelis nebulosa, Canis lupus and Cuon alpines, were extremely sparse or had vanished from this area. As a result, the vegetarian Muntiacus reevesi and omnivorous Sus scrofa had the highest abundance amongst those mammals in this area. Correlation analysis with generalized linear models indicated that the number of species captured by infrared cameras positively correlated with the surveyed area (z = 2.04, P = 0.04) and effective independent photographs (z = 2.10, P = 0.04), while it did not associate with effective camera sites (z = 1.63, P = 0.10) and total trap days (z = 1.85, P = 0.06). Results of this study provide baseline data for a follow-up to the dynamic monitoring, protection and management of key national protected mammals.

    The two terms “lectotype” and “protologue” in Melbourne Code and their applications
    Xiangyun Zhu
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  904-906.  doi:10.17520/biods.2016344
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    Mechanisms of benefit-sharing of medicinal plants found in China and neighboring countries
    Wenjing Liu, Jing Xu, Senlu Yin, Yu Tian, Junsheng Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  907-913.  doi:10.17520/biods.2016365
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    The genetic resources that are commonly shared by many countries are a core issue in the negotiation of the Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism (GMBSM). Because China is a country that has many neighboring countries, understanding the partitioning and spatial patterns is a key issue in China’s participation in the GMBSM negotiation. We analyze the geographical distribution of the plants which are shared among China and its neighboring countries and regions. The results indicate that medicinal plants found in China are commonly shared with Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, and South Asia. Among them, China shares the most medicinal plants (220 species) with Vietnam, followed by Japan (144 species) and Myanmar (75 species), and lastly India (42 species). This study shows that: (1) Discussing the establishment of a regional multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism is significant to China; (2) China should pay more attention to bilateral cooperation with neighboring countries and regions found in Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, and South Asia, as these regions share the most medicinal plants, and (3) Due to the transboundary situation clause in the Protocol is hard to play its role in a short time, additional support is needed in the negotiation of GMBSM in order to allow more time for China’s domestic legislation and sub-regional negotiation.

    Revised version of Flora of Jiangsu with refreshing additions
    Keping Ma
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (8):  914-914.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017225
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