Please wait a minute...
Table of Content
    Volume 22 Issue 2
    20 March 2014

    The northern tropical karst seasonal rain forest, best preserved in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, is the most remarkable type of karst forest in the world. This limestone karst forest has a high species richness, abundant endemic biological species. In this issue, Wang et al. and Huang et al. reported species composition and spatial distribution, numerical classification of associations and relationships of these associations with environmental factors in a 15 hectare plot (for details see pages 141–156 and 157–166). The picture shows the g eomorphic feature of Chinese north-tropical zone karst cluster-peach. (Photographed by Zaoxin Yan)

    Orginal Article
    Effect of mining landscape history on local species diversity: a case study of the Yimin open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia
    Sarula Kang, Qing Zhang, Jianming Niu, Jianjun Dong, Wenjing Ma, Xin Li, Changming Chang, Chenwei Shang
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  117-128.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13130
    Abstract ( 1866 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (849KB) ( 3073 )   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    The exploration and utilization of mineral resources accelerates local economic and social development and simultaneously exacerbates the effects of climate and landscape changes, resulting in landscape fragmentation. Landscape change is widely considered as a major threat to species loss at a regional and global scale. However, how species diversity responds to landscape changes on a temporal scale has usually been ignored. In this study, we explored relationships between landscape and biodiversity (species level and functional group level) during different years 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010) at the Yimin open-pit coal mine, a mine that has been exploited for more than 30 years and that has produced obvious fragmentation effects on the landscape in Hulunbuir City. The ongoing patterns of transformation of the landscape were measured using the landscape dominance index, the habitat integral index of connectivity (IIC), and the habitat probability of connectivity (PC) at seven different spatial scales. The main results were as follows: The present species diversity is significantly correlated with the landscape pattern indices of previous and earlier mining at a medium-sized spatial scale (4–8 km buffers). Different plant functional groups responded in various ways to changing landscape patterns. The species richness of perennial rhizome grasses was significantly correlated with the present small-scale landscape pattern (1–3 km), and the species richness of perennial forbs was significantly correlated with the previous and earlier mining large-scale landscape patterns (4–10 km). Perennial bunchgrasses were not significantly correlated with landscape patterns. We concluded that the time lag expressed by changes in plant species diversity occurred in response to changing patterns of construction and configurations of habitats in the landscape. The regional species pool determined the local species diversity. The connected habitat patches within a 4–8 km buffer region represented the principal species pool. The propagation strategies and dispersal traits of various functional groups were important mechanisms maintaining species diversity in a fragmented area.

    The spatial distribution patterns and associations of the principal trees and shrubs in a natural tropical coniferous forest on Hainan Island, China
    Junyan Zhang, Kewu Cheng, Runguo Zang
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  129-140.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13150
    Abstract ( 2401 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (694KB) ( 2713 )   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    Coniferous forests rarely occur in the tropics, but they play a unique role in maintaining biodiversity and habitat heterogeneity of tropical forest ecosystems. The Bawangling forest region (BFR) contains the largest tropical coniferous forest in China; this forest is dominated by Pinus latteri in the canopy layer and by a diverse variety of broadleaved species in the subcanopy and understory layers. Based on the relative dominance of the broadleaved species in the communities, we selected a “pure” stand and a mixed stand to analyze the spatial patterns and associations of the species in the canopy, subcanopy, and understory layers with a spatial point pattern analysis method. The results of the study were as follows: in the “pure” stand, the trees in the canopy layer showed aggregated patterns, whereas in the mixed stand, they showed aggregated patterns at smaller scales and random patterns at larger scales. In the “pure” stand, species in the subcanopy layer showed aggregated patterns at smaller scales and random patterns at larger scales, but they primarily showed aggregated patterns in the mixed stand. The trees in the understory layer showed random patterns in the “pure” stand and aggregated patterns in the mixed stand. With the increase in scale, the spatial associations between canopy and subcanopy species and between canopy and understory species changed from no association to positive associations in the “pure” stand. However, they changed from no association to negative associations in the mixed stand. The spatial associations between species in the subcanopy and understory layers were positive at all scales. These results indicate that the spatial patterns of broadleaved species are mainly controlled by the dominant conifers in the canopy layer in this natural tropical coniferous forest.

    Species composition and spatial distribution of a 15 ha northern tropical karst seasonal rain forest dynamics study plot in Nonggang, Guangxi, southern China
    Bin Wang, Yusong Huang, Xiankun Li, Wusheng Xiang, Tao Ding, Fuzhao Huang, Shuhua Lu, Wenheng Han, Shujun Wen, Lanjun He
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  141-156.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13195
    Abstract ( 2271 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (1092KB) ( 4210 )   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    Northern tropical karst seasonal rain forest, located on the northern margin of the tropical limestone karst region of China, is unique in the world and represents one of the world’s most remarkable types of karst forest. The limestone karst forests in this region display various characteristics, such as a variety of community structures, high species richness, and abundant endemic biological species, owing to the special limestone soils with abundant Ca and relatively high pH, the variety of heterogeneous habitats, and the impacts of the monsoon climate. An approach to the analysis of species composition and spatial distribution based on the investigation of a permanent plot is fundamentally important for revealing mechanisms of biodiversity maintenance in this area. The 15 ha Nonggang Northern Tropical Karst Seasonal Rain Forest Dynamics Plot (22.43°N, 106.95°E) was established in 2011. The plot is located in the Nonggang (or Longgang) National Nature Reserve in Guangxi, southern China, adjacent to northeastern Vietnam. Based on the standard field protocol of the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS), all free-standing individuals in this plot with DBH (diameter at breast height)≥1 cm were tagged, mapped and identified to species. The results of the study were as follows: (1) A total of 95,471 individuals, including trees with multiple trunks, belonging to 223 species, 157 genera and 56 families were recorded in the plot. (2) Community composition, both at the family and the generic level, was dominated by tropical floristic elements. The most dominant families were Euphorbiaceae, Verbenaceae, and Moraceae. (3) The 11 species with the greatest numbers of individuals represented 51.64% of the total individuals, and the 58 species with the greatest numbers of individuals represented 90.19% of the total individuals in the plot. Seventy-five species were considered to be rare species because they were represented by no more than one tree per hectare, accounting for 33.63% of the total species. (4) The DBH size-class structure of all species in the plot exhibited a reverse J-shaped pattern, indicating good regeneration across the community. (5) Species composition exhibited strong spatial variation in the plot. The strongly drought-resistant Boniodendron minus and Memecylon scutellatum were the dominant species on the mountain peaks. Excentrodendron tonkinense and Cleistanthus sumatranus were the dominant species on the middle slopes. The strongly shade-tolerant Erythrina stricta and Ficus hispida were the dominant species on the valley bottoms. (6) The trees with DBH>20 cm showed a higher density in the valley bottoms, whereas the trees with DBH between 10 and 20 cm were distributed evenly over the entire plot. The individual trees showing ramifications and the tree sprouts showed a higher density on the mountain peaks. (7) The species–area relationship scatter diagram consisted of two curves for sampling areas ranging between 2 and 7 ha, indicating strong spatial heterogeneity of species composition in the plot. The study suggested that the strong habitat heterogeneity and the special geological background of the area may be important for regulating the species composition and spatial distribution of trees in this karst seasonal rain forest.

    Numerical classification of associations in a northern tropical karst seasonal rain forest and the relationships of these associations with environmental factors
    Fuzhao Huang, Bin Wang, Tao Ding, Wusheng Xiang, Xiankun Li, Aiping Zhou
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  157-166.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.10155
    Abstract ( 2263 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1421KB) ( 3132 )   Supplementary Material   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    The associations in a northern tropical karst seasonal rainforest plot in Nonggang National Nature Reserve were classified using the multivariate regression tree method in conjunction with the relative elevation, slope, aspect, convexity, and the importance value of species. The results showed that the relative elevation and aspect were critical for the spatial distribution of species. The forest community of the Nonggang plot was divided into eight associations. They were as follows: (A) Ardisia thyrsifloraSterculia monospermaSaraca dives association, distributed primarily at the edge of valley bottoms with high humidity and soil moisture; (B) Ficus hispidaSterculia monospermaCaryota obtusa association, distributed primarily at the valley bottom where seasonal flooding occurs and the soil moisture and humidity are high; (C) Catunaregam spinosaVitex kwangsiensisExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed primarily on south-facing slopes at lower elevations with slight drought and greater sunlight; (D) Clerodendrum wallichiiSterculia monospermaCychidendron guangxiensis association, distributed primarily on shaded slopes at lower elevations with moderate soil moisture and less sunlight; (E) Aglaia odorataCleistanthus sumatranusExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed primarily on upper and middle half-shaded slopes with slight drought; (F) Walsura robustaCleistanthus sumatranusExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed primarily on steep half-sunny slopes with slight drought; (G) Chionanthus ramiflorusVitex kwangsiensisExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed mainly on passes with a gentle slope, moderate soil moisture, and less sunlight; (H) Clausena dunnianaBoniodendron miniusExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed mainly at the top of the mountain and in the surrounding areas, where the longest sunlight periods and the greatest extent of bare rock are accompanied by dry air and a substantial shortage of soil water. According to an analysis of the species components, the changes in species composition were associated with different topographical environmental factors. The spatial distribution of the vegetation was continuous, and there were no obvious boundaries between different associations. These results highlighted the importance of environmental factors as determinants of the distribution of species and the composition of associations in the north tropical karst seasonal rainforest.

    Assessing the in situ conservation status of key protected wild plants in Shanxi Province
    Yinbo Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Hu Yuan
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  167-173.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13131
    Abstract ( 1926 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (313KB) ( 3365 )   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    Establishing nature reserves to protect species and their habitats, is the most direct and effective approach for biodiversity conservation. Conducting investigations of the important protected species and assessing their in situ conservation status are of important guiding significance for reasonable conservation and effective management within a region. In this paper, based on the literature and field investigations, we analyzed the distribution and protection status of the key protected wild plants in Shanxi Province. The results showed that there were 57 key protected wild plants in Shanxi, 49 of which were distributed in nature reserves, and the in situ conservation rate was 86%. The nature reserves in Jincheng, Yuncheng, Linfen, and Yangquan cities contained the most protected wild plant species. Cumulative screening was used to select the six nature reserves with the highest contributions. The cumulative protection contribution rate of these six reserves was 86%. In general, the key protected wild plants are under comprehensive protection in Shanxi. However, there are still some protection gaps, and these identified gap areas will provide a scientific basis for further planning and development of nature reserves in Shanxi Province.

    Factors influencing the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis: the results of structural equation modeling
    Hongling Guo, Zhiwen Li, Zhishu Xiao
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  174-181.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.08139
    Abstract ( 1932 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (441KB) ( 2101 )   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    Seed production and quality are important factors influencing population regeneration in many seed plants. We used structural equation modeling to investigate how plant and fruit traits interact with each other to influence the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis. From May to September 2009, we sampled 45 fruiting female trees and measured plant traits (height, DBH and crown area), fruit traits (infructescence size, fruit size) and the fruit crop of each sampled tree in Jiyuan City of Henan Province, Central China. The fruit crops of P. chinensis were positively correlated with tree height, crown area and infructescence size but not significantly correlated with DBH or fruit size. The fruit crop of an individual tree had no negative direct effect on the infestation of seeds by wasps (Eurytoma plotnikovi). Such a direct effect would be predicted by the predator satiation hypothesis. Tree height and fruit size had a positive direct effect on the seed predation rate, but a significant negative correlation was found between the seed predation rate and the rate of seedlessness. Our results indicate that seedless fruits may serve as a defensive mechanism against insect seed predators. In addition, both seedless and insect-infested fruits had a negative direct effect on seed survival, and DBH, infructescence size and fruit crop had a positive indirect effect on seed survival. However, tree height and fruit size had negative indirect effects on seed survival. In conclusion, we have shown that both plant and fruit traits can strongly influence fruit crops and insect seed predation and subsequently determine the seed quality and population regeneration of P. chinensis.

    A prediction of the global habitat of two invasive fishes (Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius auratus) from East Asia using Maxent
    Xi’ao Zhang, Xiaoyun Sui, Zhi Lü, Yifeng Chen
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  182-188.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13163
    Abstract ( 2520 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (722KB) ( 3049 )   Supplementary Material   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    The topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), two small omnivorous freshwater fishes, have been introduced into many countries by human activities during recent years. Wide and severe ecological harm has resulted from the pathogens that these fishes carried and from the extremely large populations of these fishes. Based on data from a large number of distribution points systematically identified by our long-term sampling survey and from the FishBase, and on high-resolution environmental data, we used Maxent to obtain the first prediction of the potential global distribution of the two fishes. The results of the study suggest that the topmouth gudgeon and goldfish have an extremely wide potential range in the world and that this is especially the case for the goldfish. In fact, all continents except Antarctica include many potential habitats for the two fishes. Accordingly, these two fishes may spread more widely and create more serious danger to the aquatic ecosystem in the future as human activities continue to expand. Especially, the Mississippi valley in the middle part, and the eastern and southern coasts of the United States of America, region from Seattle to Vancouver of Canada will be the areas of the topmouth gudgeon with highly potential invasive risk. And those areas for goldfish will be the countries of Argentina and Brazil in South America, Guinea and Cameroon in West Africa. Our results also suggest that the use of Maxent with comprehensive distribution data and high resolution environmental data represents a new and valid method for obtaining early warnings serving to prevent the danger of biological invasion.

    Roles of semiochemicals in regulating intraspecific competition of pollinating wasps of Ficus racemosa
    Xiangzong Geng, Bo Wang, Aiqun Jia, Ruiwu Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  189-195.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13238
    Abstract ( 1959 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (297KB) ( 3112 )   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    Intraspecific competition for mating opportunities, oviposition sites, and food resources is ubiquitous for insects. Semiochemical-based chemical communication may play important roles in the regulation of intraspecific competition. The aims of this study are (1) to investigate the possible occurrence of intraspecific competition among individuals of pollinating fig wasps (Ceratosolen fusciceps) of Ficus racemosa with manipulative experiments, and (2) to assess the potential function of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in regulating the behavior of fig wasps to avoid excessive competition using head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that wasps laid more eggs when they were introduced into the syconium sequentially, compared with simultaneously introduced wasps. A chemical analysis showed that the VOCs differed quantitatively and qualitatively. Several of the 22 identified VOCs functioned to deter oviposition in other insect species. Our results indicated that intraspecific competition at oviposition sites may occur among individuals of C. fusciceps and that semiochemicals may play important roles in regulating the oviposition behavior of this species. These factors could significantly affect the fitness of both fig wasps and the host fig.

    The composition of common woody plant species and their influence on bird communities in urban green areas
    Yong Wang, Jie Xu, Gang Yang, Hongqing Li, Shiying Wu, Haiming Tang, Bo Ma, Zhenghuan Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  196-207.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13168
    Abstract ( 3035 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (757KB) ( 5350 )   Supplementary Material   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    Urban green areas are important habitats for birds in rapidly urbanized areas. The composition of woody plant species has a significant influence on the structure of bird communities in urban green areas. Therefore, to enhance the function of public green areas as wild bird habitats, we studied how woody plants influenced the composition of the bird community in Binjiang Forest Park, a typical urban green area in Shanghai city. A total of 5,368 individual birds belonging to 64 species from 25 families and 10 orders were recorded during line transect and point-count surveys conducted between 2009 and 2010. Data on bird abundance showed significant differences among months, with the two highest abundances recorded in April and November. A plot of the data on bird species richness against time (months) showed a curve with two peaks, with the highest abundance recorded in April and December. The values of the Simpson index showed significant variation in bird diversity over the year, with the highest value recorded in October and the lowest in August. With square-plot (400 m2) sampling analysis, a total of 77 woody plant species in the park was identified. Only 14 of these species were recorded in at least five plots (nine trees and five shrubs). These species were considered common woody species. The fruiting seasons of 12 of these species occurred during periods between September and the following February. The principal outbreaks of insects with significance to forestry occurred from May to November. A principal component analysis was used to group all birds observed on the 14 woody plant species into 8 guilds according to their diets, foraging behaviors, and distributions in various vegetation layers. A Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the autumn-winter fruiting season was significantly positively correlated with 5 bird guilds, including vegetarians, omnivores, raptors, and insectivores. The abundant food supply coincided with the highest bird abundance and richness in autumn and winter. An analysis of the importance of each common woody plant species for the bird community was also performed based on the evaluation of the relative richness, relative abundance, and relative number of bird guilds. The results showed that during autumn and winter, fruiting plants provided rich food resources for terrestrial migratory birds; trees such as Populus lasiocarpa, Pterocarya stenoptera, and Cinnamomum camphora had a greater importance than shrubs. The relatively lower importance of the common shrub species to birds implies that the shrub community of the park needs to be reviewed. Comments and recommendations are provided based on our research results.

    The influence of fire disturbance on the biotype structure and seasonal dynamics of ground-dwelling spider on Cangshan Mountain, Yunnan Province
    Yanyan Ma, Zizhong Yang, Ping Feng, Qiao Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  208-215.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13160
    Abstract ( 1662 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (387KB) ( 3201 )   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    In order to demonstrate the influence of fire disturbance on the function, structure and seasonal dynamics of ground-dwelling spider assemblages, we chose a burned site and an unburned control site. Both study sites were in broadleaf-conifer mixed forest on Cangshan Mountain, Yunnan Province. The results showed that (1) Zelotes zhui (relative dominance value (DV') =33.03), Pardosa chionophila (DV'=22.53) and Sibianor sp. 1 (DV'=8.75) were obviously dominant at the burned site and that Draconarius sp. 2 (DV'=63.50) was absolutely dominant at the control site; (2) At the burned site, the relative abundance of web-builders was significantly lower than that of hunters (P<0.001), whereas the relative abundance of web-builders was significantly higher than that of hunters at the control site; and (3) As season changed, the dominant group fluctuated significantly at the burned, with the lowest abundance during the part of the summer with the maximum rainfall and during the coldest winter; the spider assemblages were stable at the control site, with agelenids consistently the dominant group. These results indicated that fire disturbance changes the community function and structure of ground-dwelling spiders in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest in Cangshan Mountain, increases the relative abundance of hunters and reduces the stability of ground-dwelling spider assemblages.

    A preliminary study of the biodiversity of ground-dwelling small mammals in Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province
    Wenhua Xie, Xifu Yang, Junnian Li, Shuanglun Tao, Zhishu Xiao
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  216-222.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13151
    Abstract ( 2340 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (247KB) ( 3506 )   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    Little is known about the diversity patterns of mammals in the Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province, although the reserve was established in 1982. During September and October of 2012, the diversity of ground-dwelling small mammals was investigated using live traps, pitfalls and camera traps in a permanent forest dynamics plot and other nearby vegetation types. We captured 12 species of ground-dwelling small mammals, including eight species of Rodentia and four species of Insectivora. Presently, there are 20 species of ground-dwelling small mammals recorded in the Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, including six new species recorded in this study, i.e., Eothenomys melanogaster, Typhlomys cinereus, Apodemus draco, Anourosorex squamipes, Blarinella griselda, and Sorex thibetanus. The body mass of the individuals captured by live traps was much larger than that of the individuals captured by pitfall traps. Our study also indicates that the diversity patterns of ground-dwelling small mammals are affected by the habitat types. Therefore, we recommend that a combination of different methods be used to effectively monitor mammal diversity in the Badagongshan National Nature Reserve.

    Improving ecological niche model transferability to predict the potential distribution of invasive exotic species
    Gengping Zhu, Qiang Liu, Yubao Gao
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  223-230.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.08178
    Abstract ( 3241 )   HTML ( 40 )   PDF (392KB) ( 3577 )   Save
    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

    Ecological niche modeling (ENM) seeks to characterize the ecological requirements of species using their occurrence in association with environmental variables. The classic applications of ENM to biological invasions involve the calibration of niche modeling in the native range and the subsequent transfer of the calibrated models to other regions to predict areas of potential invasion. However, low niche model transferability has been reported in certain cases, resulting in artifactual conclusions in some studies (e.g., niche shift during a species’ invasion). Improving niche model transferability would allow precise predictions of the invasion potential of species, providing valuable information for invasion risk assessment. In this review, we address model input data (i.e., occurrence records and environmental variables), using the invasive Halyomorpha halys and Spartina alterniflora, to explore protocols for improving niche model transferability. We conclude that the knowledge of the biology, population equilibrium state, geographic distribution, and biogeographic history of the invasive species is crucial prior to niche modeling. In niche model calibration, the sufficient records should not only cover the geographic extent and the ecological dimension of the species’ distribution but also reduce the sample bias and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Selecting environmental variables should involve considerations of their biological importance in restricting the species’ distribution, the differences in occupied ecological space among geographic populations, and the dimensionality of the environmental space. Delimiting the geographic background for niche modeling should involve considerations of the species’ distributional range and population equilibrium state. We believe that, based on niche conservatism, niche model transferability can be guaranteed if niche models are built based on a reasonable approach. Caution is warranted in the case of interpretations of low niche model transferability in association with niche differentiation.

    Reviews of the effects of the cultivation of bioenergy plants on biodiversity
    Lile Hu, Junsheng Li, Jianwu Luo, Wenhui Liu, Wei Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  231-241.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13196
    Abstract ( 1766 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (269KB) ( 4332 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics

    With the decrease in fossil fuel resources and the aggravation of global environmental problems, the global production of biomass energy has grown rapidly, and the cultivation area for bioenergy plants has increased. In this paper, we review the effects of the cultivation of bioenergy plants on biodiversity and proposed key measures and countermeasures for mitigating such effects to provide a scientific basis for the cultivation of bioenergy plants in China and for reducing their effects on biodiversity. The cultivation of bioenergy plants over large areas has directly or indirectly occupied large parts of natural or semi-natural ecosystems, leading to the deterioration and disappearance of natural habitats. Moreover, such changes easily cause the ecosystem to become simplified and change the structure and functions of the ecosystem, exacerbating non-point source pollution, facilitating invasions of alien species, and even increasing the risks posed by genetically modified organisms. To mitigate the effects on biodiversity produced by the cultivation of bioenergy plants, the government or the relevant agencies need to establish production management standards for the sustainable development of biomass energy and conduct reasonable planning to avoid the production of bioenergy plants in areas of rich biodiversity or in areas where biodiversity is vulnerable, to actively develop new technologies and change the efficiency of use of raw materials associated with biomass energy, and to strengthen production mode management and change traditional planting patterns.

    The need and the prospects for developing large-scale green corridors to protect biodiversity
    Shaojie Mu, Kexin Zhou, Ying Fang, Chao Zhu
    Biodiv Sci. 2014, 22 (2):  242-249.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13188
    Abstract ( 2230 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (281KB) ( 5212 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics

    Habitat fragmentation can decrease species numbers and mobility and increase mortality rates. This process is widely recognized as the primary threat to the loss of biodiversity loss and the primary cause of species extinction. Green corridors provide a natural link between large areas of natural landscape. These corridors facilitate the movement and migration of wildlife. Several foreign environmental conservation groups have been aware of the positive impacts of large-scale green corridors on the protection of biodiversity and landscape connectivity, and a number of attempts have been made to pursue this goal. In China, the Three-North Shelterbelt Forest project launched in 1970s composed large scale ecological barrier system in most area of arid region, which is an example of large-scale green corridors. At present, the applications of green corridors in China primarily involve urban greening. These corridors are generally planned and implemented on a small, local scale without adequate consideration for ecological integrity and connectivity. This article introduces the primary mission and development history of the world’s principal large-scale corridors. The progress of development and the practice of planning for green corridors in China are topics of concern, and the shortage of green corridors in the country has been recognized. Based on the current status of the Nature Reserve System, Urban Corridor Network and specific natural landscapes in China, a feasible development scheme for large-scale green corridors in China has been proposed.

  • wechat:swdyx_wx