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Table of Content
    Volume 07 Issue 2
    20 May 1999
    Metapopulation dynamics: theory and applications
    ZHANG Da-Yong, LEI Guang-Chun, ILKKA HANSKI,
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  81-90.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999012
    Abstract ( 4809 )   PDF (292KB) ( 5422 )   Save
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    A metapopulation refers to a set of local populations within some larger area , where typically migration from one local population to at least some other patches are possible. As one of the three main approaches to spatial ecology , metapopulation biology is concerned with the dynamic consequences of migration among local populations and the conditions of regional persistence of species with unstable local populations. This article comprehensively reviews the theoretical framework and the spread of the metapopulation concept to conservation biology and applications.
    Genetic variation of 27 microsatellite loci in three Hubei indigenous pig breeds
    FAN Bin, LI Kui, PENG Zhong-Zhen, Y Chen, C Moran, GONG Yan-Zhang, ZHAO Shu-Hong,
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  91-96.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999013
    Abstract ( 3689 )   PDF (162KB) ( 2620 )   Save
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    Genetic variability within and among three indigenous pig breeds ( Tongcheng Pig , Qingping Pig and Yangxin Pig) in Hubei Province was surveyed , by means of 27 microsatellite loci recommended by ISAG (the International Society for Animal Genetics) and FAO( Food and Agriculture Organization) . Genetic heterozygosity of each pig breed , polymorphism information content of each microsatellite locus and genetic distances among these populations were calculated. The results showed that allelic number and frequencies at the same locus obviously differed among the breeds. Some alleles were shared by all breeds , for instance 159bp , 162bp and 164bp in S0155 , and 110bp in Sw72 , while some other alleles were observed only in a single breed , such as 94bp and 96bp in Sw72 that were found solely in Yangxin Pig , 233bp , 245bp and 249bp in S0288 were in Tongcheng Pig , 249bp and 253bp in Sw90 were in Qingping Pig. Therefore , the common alleles (such as 158bp , 162bp and 164bp in S0155) are likely to be the oldest and the most distinctive for the native pig breeds of China. Geneic heterozygosity of three pig breed is 0. 7489 , 0. 6987 and 0. 6273 respectively , indication high genetic diversity. Genetic relationship between Tongcheng Pig and Qingping Pig is closer than their relationship with Yangxin Pig.
    Analysis on vegetative food resources and feeding habits of Macaca mulatta from Neilingding Island, Guangdong Province
    WANG Yong-Jun, LIAO Wen-Bo, CHANG Hong,
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  97-105.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999014
    Abstract ( 3525 )   PDF (366KB) ( 2241 )   Save
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    The flora and vegetative food resources on Neilingding Island were investigated , and the proportion of edible parts of about 200 species was determined. The results show : (1) There are about 200 species as food resources for Macaca mulatta in the Island , and the edible pares are mainly leaves and fruits ; (2) the M. mulatta’s habitats are mainly the broad2leaved forests and bushlands ; (3) the plant species as its food resources are mainly tropical or tropical-subtropical elements , which is the characteristic and (4) it is estimated that the maximum number of M. mulatta population is 820~1640 (mean 1230) of the vegetation and the optimal number is about 743~1485 (mean 1114) . The population in this number consumes about 10 %~ 20 % of the of high quality food resources.
    Studies on the diversity and correlation between the communities of vegetable insect pests and their natural enemies.
    WANG Cheng-Shu, CHEN Shu-Ren
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  106-111.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999015
    Abstract ( 3227 )   PDF (188KB) ( 2762 )   Save
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    Without chemical control , the communities of vegetable insect pests and their natural enemies had apparently dynamic relationships. In Jianghuai area , the pest community mainly included B revicoryae brassicae , Tet ranychus cinnabarinus , Diaphania indica and Myzus persicae , while the natural enemy community chiefly composed of Harmonia axyndis , Coccinella septempunctata and Trichogramma evanescens. Number of species and individuals of insects reached a climax between late August and late September , and the indexes of evenness and diversity of insect community were above 2. 5 and 0. 7 respectively. The authoritative coefficient between the communities of pests and natural enemies reached significant level. The the correlation between the two communities was mainly dependent on the index of diversity and evenness , which had higher values loading in correspondent communities.
    Phenotypic feature diversity of Rhizobia isolated from Medicago sp., Melilotus sp. and Caragana sp.
    YAN Ai-Min, CHEN Wen-Xin
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  112-118.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999016
    Abstract ( 3464 )   PDF (287KB) ( 2184 )   Save
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    133 phenotypic features (nutrition utilization , antibiotic resistance ,tolerance to NaCl and alkali , enzyme activity)of 48 strains isolated from Medicago sp. , Melilotus sp. , Caragana sp. , growing in arid regions , were analyzed. The result shows that there are great diversities among strains isolated from the the same hosts growing in different geographic origin. Through the numerical taxonomy , 41 unknown strains are clustered into three new groups , at the similarity level of 85 %. The main host plant of strains in group 1 is Medicago , the main host plant of strains in group 2 is Melilotus , the host plant of strains in group 3 is Caragana. XJ96 333 (the host plant is Melilotus) was clustered with group 1 at the similarity level of 84 %. NM 020 (the host plant is Caragana) was clustered into R. leguminosarum at the similarity level of 88 %. NM 183 and NM 218 (the host plant is Caragana) were clustered into S . fredii at the similarity level of 86 %. XJ96 482 (the host plant is Medicago sativa) was clustered with other examined strains at the similarity of 67 %. Strains in group 1 ,2 and 3 can grow on YMA with 2. 0 % (340 mM) NaCl ,pH 9. 0 and in 40 ℃. Strains in group 3 can also grow on YMA with 3. 0 % (510 mM) NaCl. 90 % of strains in group 1 and all strains in group 2 ,3 can grow at 10 ℃,which shows that all examined strains of group 1 ,2 ,3 are resistant to NaCl and alkali ,low temperature and high temperature. Group 1 and Group 2 shared a similarity of lower than 85 % with S . melioti . This shows phenotypic feature diversity of strains in the group 1 and group 2
    The diversity of grasshopper communities in Qinling-Bashan Mountainous Region
    LIAN Zhen-Min, LIANG Pei
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  119-122.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999017
    Abstract ( 2834 )   PDF (124KB) ( 1696 )   Save
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    Shannon-Wiener’s diversity index ( H′) , Pielou’s evenness( E) and dominance( C) were calculated for the grasshopper communities in the Qinling-Bashan Mountainous Region. The results show that the number of species ,values of diversities , evenness and dominance are distinctly different among different regions ,habits ,the altitudes and the months. These phenomena are mainly related to the characteristics of the grasshoppers and the environments variation.
    Population dynamics and nesting of three species of egret on Xiamen Dayu Island
    HU Hui-Juan, CHEN Jian-Rong, SUN Lei, WU Guang-Qi, LU Chang-Yi, SONG Xiao-Jun,
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  123-126.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999018
    Abstract ( 3325 )   PDF (160KB) ( 2093 )   Save
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    This paper deals with the population dynamics and nesting of Nycticorax nycticorax , Egretta garzetta and Ardeola bacchus in the Egret Naturel Reserve on Xiamen Dayu Island. The number of three egret species vary greatly with the season. May , June and July is the peak seasons. When the total birds reach about 5000 in each month. Especially , 5610 birds are sighted in May ,and three species account for 50. 8 % , 32. 0 % and 17. 2 % , respectively. In April , most egrets begin to nest on the branchs of Acacia confusa , and nests come to 6000 during middle May and the beginning of J une. The results show that the three species of egret are all resident and breeding birds of the Island.
    The effects of population density on the mortality , growth and reproduction in Mosla hangchowensis
    LU Da-Gen, GE Ying, CHANG Jie, HUANG Cheng-Cai,
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  127-131.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999019
    Abstract ( 3410 )   PDF (156KB) ( 2027 )   Save
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    The effects of population density of Mosla hangchowensis was studied. The results showed : (1) In the growing season , its mortality rate depended on its population density of M. hangchowensis. The optimal density of M. hangchowensis was 200~1000 individuals/ m2 . (2) The relationships of the plant height or number of flowers bloomed and the dates fitted the Logistic function. (3) In the growing season ,about 60 % of individuals at a high density can complete their life cycle , whereas , 85 % at a low density can do. Most of morphological and reproductive traits were density dependent .
    Global Change and Wild Species: Observations and Predictions*
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  132-139.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999020
    Abstract ( 3030 )   PDF (262KB) ( 2387 )   Save
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    The world is warming up because of human activities,The rapid global changes are likely to have a large impact on wild species as they combine with loss and damage of natural habitats caused by urbanization,agricultural and silvicultural practices.The observed and predicted effects of climate change on wild species were looked at in four ways;timing of life cycles,distributions of species and population patterns,migration strategies,and important sites.Some species may become extinct because of climate change.Changes in the distribution of wild species because of climate change are likely to have far reaching effects on humans.
    The scope and content of study on soil biodiversity and its sustainable exploitation
    ZHANG Jia-En
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  140-144.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999021
    Abstract ( 3664 )   PDF (126KB) ( 3531 )   Save
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    Soil biodiversity is an ignored study field , a lot of researches should be conducted urgently , which include : (1) field investigation of soil biodiversity ( the types , composition , distribution and data base of soil organisms) ; (2) study on functions and physio2ecological processes ; (3) the loss mechanism and restoration of soil biodiversity ; (4) study on the conservation and exploitation of soil biodiversity. Moreover , promising for it is utilization sustainable of the resource of living organisms in soils including edible animals , natural enemy organisms , rhizosphere microbes , biofertilizers and indicator organisms for environment pollution.
    The diversity of fungal secondary metabolites and their potential applications
    LIANG Zong-Qi
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  145-150.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999022
    Abstract ( 3621 )   PDF (186KB) ( 4745 )   Save
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    From a point view of co-evolution among organisms and functional role of secondary metabolites , some fungal secondary metabolites that are closely related with the host plant and insect and their potential applications for producing new medicines and agricultural chemicals are emphatically reviewed in this paper.
    Terminator technology and biosafety
    QIAN Ying-Qian, MA Ke-Ping, SANG Wei-Guo, WEI Wei
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (2):  151-155.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999023
    Abstract ( 3629 )   PDF (113KB) ( 2188 )   Save
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    In March 1998 , the Delta and Pine Land seed company and the U. S. Department of Agriculture announced that they had received a patent on the“Terminator Technology”. The technology involves three following steps :genetic engineers transfer terminator genes to a crop ; the seed company initiates the terminator process by adding an inducer before selling the seeds ; farmers then plant seeds , and harvest mature ,but sterile , seeds. At a late stage of seed development , under the control of the inducer ,one gene in the terminator becomes active and produces toxin. The toxin kills the embryo , resulting in the sterile seed. Enormous international responses were induced by this patent . The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) pointed out that the terminator technology must be banned in order to defend the world food security. The CGIAR cited the following reasons : This technology will stop farmers from producing fertile seeds from their own crops , consequently , the genetic diversity of crops and sustainabity of agriculture will be adversely affected. It will probably induce the risk of the sale or exchange of sterile seeds , and risk of biosafety through pollen spread. Some third world countries warmed that this technique is“seeds of disaster”, and“the neutron bomb of agriculture”. Sterile seeds produced by genetically modified crops with terminator genes may solve the ecological risk brought about from transgene escape , but the accompanied risk on biosafety and expense of global food security is no solution. From another point of view , this technology itself may be the another kind of risk of biosafety derived from genetic engineering.

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