Biodiv Sci ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (7): 745-757.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017156

Special Issue: 生物入侵

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Evaluating the endangerment status of China’s angiosperms through the red list assessment

Haining Qin1,*(), Lina Zhao1,2, Shengxiang Yu1, Huiyuan Liu1,3, Bo Liu4, Nianhe Xia5, Hua Peng6, Zhenyu Li1, Zhixiang Zhang7, Xingjin He8, Linke Yin9, Yulin Lin10, Quanru Liu3, Yuantong Hou11, Yan Liu12, Qixin Liu13, Wei Cao14, Jianqiang Li15, Shilong Chen16, Xiaohua Jin1, Tiangang Gao1, Wenli Chen1, Haiying Ma17, Yuying Geng18, Xiaofeng Jin19, Chaoyang Chang20, Hong Jiang21, Lei Cai22, Chunxin Zang23, Jianyong Wu24, Jianfei Ye2,25, Yangjun Lai26, Bing Liu1, Qinwen Lin25, Naxin Xue1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 School of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    4 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    5 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    6 Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    7 School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    8 College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064
    9 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011
    10 Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medicinal Science & Peking Union Medicinal College, Beijing 100193;
    11 College of Life Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165
    12 Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    13 Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210014
    14 Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
    15 Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074
    16 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    17 School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    18 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    19 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036
    20 College of Life Sciences, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, Yangling, Shanxi 712100;
    21 Yunnan Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650204
    22 Ministry of Environment Protection of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100035;
    23 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    24 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    25 Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    26 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008;
  • Received:2017-05-27 Accepted:2017-07-11 Online:2017-07-20 Published:2017-07-21
  • Contact: Qin Haining


All known species of Angiosperms in China were evaluated according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second edition and the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels, Version 4.0. Of the 30,068 species evaluated, 21 species were found Extinct (EX), 9 species were Extinct in the Wild (EW), 10 species were Regionally Extinct (RE), 518 species were Critically Endangered (CR), 1,152 species were Endangered (EN), 1,693 species were Vulnerable (VU), 2,538 species were Near Threatened (NT), 21,132 species were Least Concern (LC), and 2,995 species were Data Deficient (DD). The results show that 3,363 species, representing 11.2% of the evaluated species, were identified as threatened (CR, EN and VU). The main portion of threatened species occurs below 2,000 m elevation in southwestern and southern China. Habitat loss and degradation, over-collecting by humans, and intrinsic factors are the three leading threats to angiosperms in China. Comparisons of the status of taxa on this Red List to those evaluated by Wang & Xie (2004) show changes in the names and categories of some taxa due to land use pressures, the impact of conservation measures to improve the status of some species as well as new information, such as from taxonomic revisions. Therefore, there is a need for future data collection and reevaluation of the red list.

Key words: IUCN Red List, risk assessment of extinction, threats, angiosperms, conservation