Biodiv Sci ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (8): 23167.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2023167

• Conservation and Governance • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Global collaborative implementation of Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework: An analysis of challenge and solutions based on the SFIC model

Xu Zhu1,2,*(), Jiaqi Li1,2   

  1. 1. School of Marxism, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049
    2. Center for Aisa-Europe Studies, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049
  • Received:2023-05-25 Accepted:2023-08-23 Online:2023-08-20 Published:2023-09-06
  • Contact: *E-mail:


Background & Aims: After the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) was implemented to address global biodiversity priorities. This paper brings in a holistic, systematic thinking path based on the SFIC model to research the challenges faced in the implementation of the Kunming-Montreal GBF, and puts forward corresponding policy priorities that offer suggestions to policy-makers on implementation.
Methods: This paper identifies documents related to Kunming-Montreal GBF, Aichi Targets, CBD, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), as well as global biodiversity governance and analyzes their contents.
Results: Our results indicate that the implementation of Kunming-Montreal GBF needs global collaborative cooperation instead of acting separately and identifies a lack of holistic analysis in current research efforts. We then combine elements in the SFIC model with data on biodiversity governance, and analyze the implementation challenges. These challenges include basic differences between developing and developed countries, cooperating relationships, acting motivations, information communication, trust construction, funds collection, following Kunming-Montreal GBF details, system design, and leadership from the UN branch and major countries.
Conclusion: On analyzing the challenges and the SFIC model structure, we present several policy suggestions, including promoting resource mobilization and capacity building in developing countries, facilitating trilateral assistance and cooperation, strengthening information communication and sharing, consolidating trust construction, accumulating funds, fostering further negotiation, seeking the balance between the constraining force and encouragement of the system, improving the fairness and rationality of the system, strengthening the leadership of UN branch in charge and major countries.

Key words: global biodiversity, Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, collaborative implementation, global governance, SFIC model