生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 532-538.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13200

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中国海域海洋生物的营养级指数变化特征

杜建国1, 叶观琼2, 陈彬1,,A;*(), 郑新庆1   

  1. 1 .国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
    2.新加坡国立大学生物科学系, 新加坡 117543
  • 收稿日期:2013-09-04 接受日期:2014-07-16 出版日期:2014-07-20 发布日期:2014-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 陈彬
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31101902)、福建省自然科学基金(2012J05074)、国家留学基金(201309660067)、国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项资金(海三科2011006)、国家海洋局“中国海洋生物多样性保护战略与行动计划”项目

Changes in the marine trophic index of Chinese marine area

Jianguo Du1, Guanqiong Ye2, Bin Chen1,*(), Xinqing Zheng1   

  1. 1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China
    2 .Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
  • Received:2013-09-04 Accepted:2014-07-16 Online:2014-07-20 Published:2014-07-24
  • Contact: Chen Bin

摘要:

利用联合国粮农组织(FAO)1950-2011年渔获物捕捞量资料, 分析了我国海域(包括大陆海域、台湾海域、香港海域和澳门海域)129种渔获物的营养级指数变化特征。研究表明, 1950-1974年我国海洋营养级指数在3.45左右波动, 1975-1978年下降至3.35左右, 1982-1987年急剧下降到3.25并维持到1996年, 1997-2011年平稳回升至3.34。与全球海洋营养级指数相比, 1984年之前我国高于全球水平, 而1984年之后则低于全球水平。就生物类群而言, 鱼类对我国海洋营养级指数的贡献最大, 达73.1-85.8%; 甲壳动物次之, 为9.2-15.5%; 软体动物较小, 为3.3-11.6%; 其他无脊椎动物的贡献最小, 不超过1.8%。过度捕捞使我国部分渔获物由原来的长寿命、高营养级的底层鱼类变为现在的短寿命、低营养级的无脊椎动物和中上层鱼类。渔业捕捞许可管理制度、禁渔期和禁渔区制度、海洋捕捞产量“零增长”和“负增长”计划、增殖放流、扩大海洋保护区面积等措施的实施可能是我国海洋营养级指数回升的主要原因。

关键词: 中国沿海, 海洋生物多样性, 营养级指数, 海洋食物网

Abstract:

Using the fishery catches and landings data from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Fishery Statistics (1950 to 2011) for 129 marine species, we analyzed changes in the trophic index of captured species in China (including 4 sea areas: Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau). The results showed the following: the marine trophic index remained stable from 1950 to 1974, fluctuating around 3.45, then declined to 3.35 during the period 1975-1978, declined again sharply to 3.25 between 1982 and 1987, remained stable in the following 10 years, and then increased gradually to 3.34 from 1997 to 2011. Comparing to global marine trophic index, China’s marine trophic index was higher than the global level before 1984, but became lower after 1984. Comparing the contributions of the 4 main biological groups used in the calculation of the index showed that fish species contributed the mostly at 73.1-85.8%, crustaceans contributed 9.2-15.5%, molluscs contributed 3.3-11.6%, and other invertebrates contributed less than 1.8%. The general decline we observed in China’s marine trophic index is associated with shifts in fishery catches from benthic fishes with a long lives and high trophic levels, to invertebrates and pelagic fishes with short lives and low trophic levels. Increasing Chinese marine trophic index from 1997 to 2011 may be attributed to a series of fishery management countermeasures, including new fishing permits regulations, closed fishing seasons, “zero and negative growth plans” for marine fishery catches and landings, artificial breeding and stocking of juveniles fishes, and marine protected areas for spawning and feeding grounds.

Key words: Chinese marine area, marine biodiversity, marine trophic index, marine food web