生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 98-108.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020219

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

动物移动网络研究对景观生态学的贡献

李月辉, 胡远满*()   

  1. 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所中国科学院森林生态与管理重点实验室, 沈阳 110016
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-27 接受日期:2020-08-17 出版日期:2021-01-20 发布日期:2020-09-09
  • 通讯作者: 胡远满
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: huym@iae.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41871197);国家自然科学基金(41271201);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0500401)

The contributions of animal movement network researches to landscape ecology

Yuehui Li, Yuanman Hu*()   

  1. CAS Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
  • Received:2020-05-27 Accepted:2020-08-17 Online:2021-01-20 Published:2020-09-09
  • Contact: Yuanman Hu

摘要:

景观生态学在其发展之初的20世纪80年代, 提出了关于景观网络研究(包括景观网络概念、网络结构指数和景观连接度)的基本构想, 这些构想需要在景观过程的研究中逐渐被落实和发展。动物移动过程因动物在斑块或廊道上有着独特丰富的属性特征、与周围资源环境之间存在复杂反馈而区别于无机物运移的景观过程, 则动物移动网络研究在实现关于景观网络研究的基本构想、推动景观生态学发展中贡献独特。因此, 总结动物移动网络研究的来源脉络及其对景观生态学的理论贡献对于景观网络领域和景观生态学学科的发展都具有重要意义。本文抓住景观生态学发展之初提出的关于景观网络研究的基本构想, 寻找和剖析其中所蕴含的景观生态学思想, 追踪这些思想如何被落实、发展、并形成目前的三个热点方向: 动物移动网络模拟、重要值评价和景观连接度分析; 总结这三个方向的研究进展, 指出整合动物的空间行为特征是必然发展趋势; 揭示出动物移动网络研究始终都以发掘斑块或廊道的动物有机体的属性特征(如种群数量)、以及描述这种属性在不同斑块或廊道之间的差异和联系为方向, 正是这种属性的发掘有效地落实、发展和丰富了关于景观网络研究的最初构想, 对景观生态学的贡献比其他过程更为独特。文章还总结了我国动物移动网络研究与国际研究相比较为滞后的现状, 指出其暂时尚未显示出对我国景观生态学的独特贡献; 强调发展源于跟踪定位数据的动物空间行为生态学研究是减小差距的重要、必要前提。期望本文能引发关于景观网络乃至景观生态学理论发展的方向性思考, 为研究者提供参考。

关键词: 动物移动网络, 景观生态学, 景观格局, 景观过程, 景观功能, 迁徙网络模拟, 网络要素重要值, 景观连接度, 空间移动行为

Abstract:

Context: As early as the emergence of landscape ecology in the 1980s, scientists began to conceive ideas about landscape networks including landscape networks concepts, network metrics, and landscape connectivity. Those early ideas needed to be gradually realized through the exploration of concrete landscape processes. Animal movement processes are substantially different from inorganic processes due to the fact that animals provide a variety of biological attributes in each corridor or patch and feed back into their habitat in a highly complex way. Therefore, the animal movement network research especially contribute to realizing and developing those early ideas to build up landscape network research.
Objectives: We present a review to summarize the development of research focusing on animal movement networks and how it has contributed to landscape ecology. We also provide an overview of animal movement network research progress in China and recognize the gap between China and developed countries.
Results and conclusions: We summarize the early ideas of landscape networks including landscape networks concepts, network metrics, and landscape connectivity which have shaped three current focuses in animal network research: modelling movement networks, evaluating importance of network elements, and examining functional landscape connectivity. It is considered as the trend of incorporating animal movement to movement network research. We illustrate that the research on movement networks has aimed at quantifying biological attributes in each corridor/patch as well as the connections or differences among corridors/patches in those attributes. This has made a special contribution to realizing those early ideas and developing landscape ecology from the era of focusing on only inorganic processes. Also, we highlight that there is a gap in animal movement networks research between China and developed countries, which hinders the special contributions to landscape ecology study in China. Additionally, we emphasize the importance and necessity of movement ecology research employing GPS tracking data to improve knowledge of animal movement networks and narrow the research gap.

Key words: animal movement network, landscape ecology, landscape patterns, landscape processes, landscape function, simulation of migratory network, importance of network elements, landscape connectivity, movement behavior