生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (3): 211-225.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08207

• 论文 •    下一篇

东北虎种群的时空动态及其原因分析

田瑜1, 邬建国1,2, 寇晓军1, 李钟汶1, 王天明1, 牟溥1, 葛剑平1,*()   

  1. 1 北京师范大学景观生态与可持续性科学研究中心, 北京 100875
    2 School of Life Sciences & Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA
  • 收稿日期:2008-08-20 接受日期:2009-03-25 出版日期:2009-05-20 发布日期:2009-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 葛剑平
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: gejp@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础性工作专项(2006FY210100);中俄资源环境领域重大问题合作研究(2005CB724800)

Spatiotemporal pattern and major causes of the Amur tiger population dynamics

Yu Tian1, Jianguo Wu1,2, Xiaojun Kou1, Zhongwen Li1, Tianming Wang1, Pu Mou1, Jianping Ge1,*()   

  1. 1 Center for Landscape Ecology and Sustainability Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2 School of Life Sciences & Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA
  • Received:2008-08-20 Accepted:2009-03-25 Online:2009-05-20 Published:2009-05-20
  • Contact: Jianping Ge

摘要:

作者通过对广泛的历史资料的综合分析, 研究了东北虎(Panthera tigris altaica)种群在近一个多世纪以来的时空动态及其原因, 并从景观生态学和可持续性科学的角度对东北虎的保护提出了建议。东北虎是俄罗斯远东、中国东北、蒙古东部以及朝鲜的关键种。近百年以来的多种人为干扰因素使该种群从一个世纪前的近3,000只的历史最高纪录减少到目前约500只的低水平。现存种群主要分布在俄罗斯远东地区Sikhote山脉的一个大生境区域和两个靠近中俄边境孤立的小生境斑块, 少数个体零星分布在中国境内几个小而孤立的生境斑块中。威胁东北虎种群生存的两个最主要因素是捕猎、生境丧失和破碎化。此外, 食物匮乏、战争等因素也对东北虎的生存和繁衍有一定程度的影响。我们建议建立长期监测平台; 禁止盗猎并限制在东北虎潜在栖息地采伐、狩猎以及修筑道路等人类活动; 建立相互连通的保护区域, 特别是建立中国与俄罗斯间跨国界的生态廊道。这些保护措施应该以景观生态学和可持续性科学为指导, 实现空间资源的合理配置和土地利用格局的优化, 同时考虑东北虎种群的生存和当地经济、社会发展的需求, 从而促进实现区域可持续发展的最终目标。

关键词: 东北虎, 种群历史动态和空间格局, 生境丧失和破碎化, 东北虎保护策略与措施, 景观生态学与可持续性科学

Abstract

Based on a comprehensive literature review, we analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) population dynamics during the past century, and proposed a set of strategies and measures for conserving this endangered species from the perspectives of landscape ecology and sustainability science. The Amur tiger is a keystone species in the region of Russia Far East, Eastern Mongolia, Northeastern China, and North Korea, and its population declined dramatically during the past century, from the historical record of 3,000 to the current low level of about 500 because of different kinds of anthropogenic disturbances. The extant tiger population is distributed mainly in the Russia Far East region, including one large habitat area along the Sikhote Mountain and two smaller habitat patches near the Russia-China border. A small number of tiger individuals are also found in several small isolated habitat patches in northeastern China. The primary causes for the decline of the tiger population were poaching, habitat loss, and habitat fragmentation. The scarcity of prey and wars were also responsible for the decrease in the tiger population. To better conserve this endangered species, we propose the following strategies and measures: to establish a long-term monitoring platform; to strictly prohibit tiger poaching and restrict forest logging, hunting, and building roads and other artificial structures within the tiger distribution areas; and to build animal movement corridors among reserves and across the China-Russia border. To achieve these goals, large-scale land use planning and habitat pattern optimization are needed, and conservation goals must be integrated with the overall goal of sustainable development in the region that simultaneously considers environmental, economic, and social factors based on the principles of landscape ecology and sustainability science.

Key words: the Amur tiger, historical dynamics and spatial pattern, habitat loss and fragmentation, conservation strategies and measures, landscape ecology and sustainability science