生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 824-829.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015022

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保护地旅游公路的野生动物通道设计原则与技术参数

余小林1,2, 周友兵1,*(), 徐文婷1, 谢宗强1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093)
    2 (中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-23 接受日期:2015-07-06 出版日期:2015-11-20 发布日期:2015-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 周友兵
  • 基金资助:
    环保公益性行业科研专项(201309039)

Principle and technical parameters for designing wildlife crossings on tourism roads in protected areas

Xiaolin Yu1,2, Youbing Zhou1,*(), Wenting Xu1, Zongqiang Xie1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2015-01-23 Accepted:2015-07-06 Online:2015-11-20 Published:2015-12-02
  • Contact: Zhou Youbing

摘要:

保护地以其丰富的生物多样性和优美的自然环境为生态旅游的开展提供了基础条件。近年来, 保护地的生态旅游与旅游道路建设得到了飞速发展。旅游公路的修建, 在促进经济发展的同时, 也带来了野生动物致死、基因隔离、栖息地丧失、生境破碎化等一系列生态问题。因此设立合适的野生动物通道作为一种有效方式, 成为缓解公路对野生动物负面影响的主要途径。本文基于动物通道相关研究, 提出通道设计应遵从针对性、科学性、持续有效性、可行性四条原则, 道路生态学与保护生物学相关理论、保护地管理法规与管理规划、关键物种或类群生态学特性与栖息地现状以及沿线地形地貌特征都应作为通道设置的参考依据; 并从通道建设的数量、位置、类型、尺寸、表面设计、配套设施以及后期监测等方面提出了通道建设的技术参数。为长期有效地发挥野生动物通道的生态功能, 建议制定通道建设技术规范, 细化通道技术参数, 积极开展科研监测, 以缓解道路对野生动物的影响。

关键词: 道路生态学, 旅游公路, 持续有效性, 野生动物保护, 技术参数, 生态旅游意识

Abstract

Protected areas are crucially important for safeguarding biodiversity, and can provide a sustainable means for generating local community income through nature-based ecotourism. Although tourism roads are thus prerequisites for the development of protected areas, they have a negative impact on wildlife, through direct traffic casualties (mortality), and habitat loss and fragmentation, which can lead to genetic isolation. Wildlife crossings have been proven to be one of the most important ways to alleviate these negative effects. Here, we collected data by completing a literature review, and proposed that pertinence, science, sustainability and validity, and feasibility should be regarded as the four main principles for designing wildlife crossing. A better understanding of the theory regarding road ecology and conservation biology, protection regulations and management plans of protected areas, bio-ecological characteristics of key species, and wildlife habitat and topography along tourism roads may contribute enormously to determine the number, type, location, size and monitoring of wildlife crossings. Furthermore, we suggest that wildlife crossings will work more effectively when they are well designed and constructed, under continuous monitoring and regulation by the administration, and in concert with awareness of both eco-tourists and tour operators driving within the reserve. The use of these crossings may contribute significantly to improving the balance between ecotourism and the conservation of wildlife in protected areas.

Key words: road ecology, tourism road, sustainability and validity, wildlife conservation, technical parameters, eco-tourism consciousness