Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 875-887.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016108

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Community characteristics of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Huangshan, Anhui Province, East China

Hui Ding1, *, Yanming Fang2, *, Xinhu Yang3, Fayin Yuan2, Liheng He4, Jianfei Yao3, Jun Wu3, Bin Chi3, Yao Li2, Shuifei Chen1, Tingting Chen1, 5, Haigen Xu1, **()   

  1. 1 Research Center for Nature Conservation and Biodiversity/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory on Biosafety, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    2 Southern Modern Forestry Collaborative Innovation Center/College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    3 Garden Bureau, Mount Huangshan Scenic Area Management Committee, Huangshan, Anhui 245800
    4 School of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    5 College of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044
  • Received:2016-04-19 Accepted:2016-08-10 Online:2016-09-02
  • Ding Hui,Fang Yanming,Xu Haigen

Located in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, Huangshan is one of the high mountains in eastern China and lies in the transition zone of north-south flora. It is considered a refuge of flora and fauna during the Quaternary maximum glaciation. Zonal vegetation is classified as evergreen broad-leaved forest with a vertical distribution pattern. It is not only one of China’s Biodiversity Conservation Priority Areas, but also one of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites and a world famous scenic spot. In 2014, we established a large-scale forest dynamics plot with an area of 10.24 ha in Huangshan based on international protocols (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Center for Tropical Forest Science, CTFS) and completed the first field survey. The investigation aimed at revealing community characteristics by analyzing species composition, flora characteristics, diameter class structure, and spatial distribution patterns. We recorded 191 species of vascular plants, belonging to 59 families and 129 genera, in the plot. Among these, trees (DBH ≥ 1 cm) belonged to 46 families, 97 genera and 153 species. The number of family and genera with tropical distributions accounted for 65.79% and 45.36% of the total taxa, respectively, while those with temperate distributions accounted for 34.21% and 51.55%, respectively. A number of rare and endangered species occurred in the plots, including six species classified as Class II of State Key Protected Wild Plants, seven threatened species (VU) from the China’s Biodiversity Red List: Higher Plant, one species defined in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (Appendix II), and 64 endemic species to China, indicating their values for protection and research. We also found that the number of species increased sharply with increasing scale when the scale was less than 2,150 m2, while at a higher resolution its rate of increase decreased significantly. When the scale was larger than 57,950 m2, the rate of increase declined slightly. Rare species (N = 69, less than 1 ind./ha) reached 45.10% of the total number of individuals. Members of Fagaceae and Ericaceae comprised more than half of the total importance values (IV). The IV of Castanopsis eyrei, a constructive species, was 26.25%, and followed by Eurya nitida (7.63%), Rhododendron ovatum (7.6%), Pinus massoniana (6.29%) and Loropetalum chinense (4.83%). The mean DBH for all the individuals was 4.10 cm, and small sized trees dominated the plot. The emergent layer was divided into two sub-layers, individuals of C. eyrei were dominant in both layers, while P. massoniana was a subdominant species. Castanopsis eyrei, E. nitida, R. ovatum and P. massoniana had a significant clustered distribution.

Key words: forest dynamics plot, mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, species composition, floristic characteristics, rare species

Fig. 1

Contour map of the Huangshan forest dynamics plot"

Table 1

The areal-types of families and genera of trees in the Huangshan forest dynamics plot"

分布类型 Areal-types 科数
No. of families
Percentage of
families (%)
No. of genera
Percentage of
genera (%)
1. 广布 Cosmopolitan 8 - 0 -
2. 泛热带 Pantropic 15 32.61 19 19.59
3. 东亚(热带、亚热带)及热带南美间断
Tropical and Subtropical East Asia, (South) Tropical America disjuncted
4 8.70 5 5.15
4. 旧世界热带 Old World Tropic 2 4.35 5 5.15
5. 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Australasia Oceania 2 4.35 3 3.09
6. 热带亚洲至热带非洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 1 2.17 1 1.03
7. 热带亚洲 Tropical Asia 1 2.17 11 11.34
热带小计 Subtotal of Tropical (2-7) 25 65.79 44 45.36
8. 北温带 North Temperate 10 21.74 21 21.65
9. 东亚及北美间断 East Asia and North America disjuncted 1 2.17 15 15.46
10. 旧世界温带 Old World Temperate 0 0.00 3 3.09
14. 东亚 East Asia 2 4.35 11 11.34
温带小计 Subtotal of Temperate (8-14) 13 34.21 50 51.55
15. 中国特有 Endemic to China 0 0.00 3 3.09
合计 Total 46 100.00 97 100.00

Fig. 2

Species-area curve in the Huangshan forest dynamics plot. ×, Measured values; ·, Simulated values."

Table 2

Top 10 families with high importance values in the Huangshan forest dynamics plot"

Importance values (%)
Basal area (m2)
壳斗科 Fagaceae 33.66 188.41
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 17.59 19.17
山茶科 Theaceae 12.91 9.70
山矾科 Symplocaceae 6.59 5.72
松科 Pinaceae 6.29 39.12
金缕梅科 Hamamelidaceae 5.46 10.96
冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 3.77 7.74
樟科 Lauraceae 3.10 4.21
杉科 Taxodiaceae 2.36 15.15
安息香科 Styracaceae 1.84 2.45

Table 3

Top 10 species with high importance values in the Huangshan forest dynamics plot"

Importance values (%)
Basal area (m2)
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 26.25 161.02
细齿叶柃 Eurya nitida 7.63 4.79
马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 7.60 11.38
马尾松 Pinus massoniana 6.29 39.12
檵木 Loropetalum chinense 4.83 7.10
青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 4.11 13.16
珍珠花 Lyonia ovalifolia 3.45 2.75
老鼠矢 Symplocos stellaris 2.55 2.31
短柄枹栎 Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata 2.46 12.21
满山红 Rhododendron mariesii 2.38 1.61

Fig. 3

Distribution of individuals with different DBH-classes (1-37 cm) in the Huangshan forest dynamics plot"

Fig. 4

Distribution of individuals with different height classes (≤ 22 m) in the Huangshan forest dynamics plot"

Table 4

Top 10 species with individuals at different tree layers in the Huangshan forest dynamics plot"

第一亚层 The first sub-layer 第二亚层 The second sub-layer
物种 Species 个体数
No. of individuals
物种 Species 个体数
No. of individuals
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 995 甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 3,918
马尾松 Pinus massoniana 231 马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 1,435
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 209 檵木 Loropetalum chinense 1,175
短柄枹栎 Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata 56 马尾松 Pinus massoniana 1,132
青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 52 青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 984
枫香树 Liquidambar formosana 41 短柄枹栎 Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata 536
山槐 Albizia kalkora 30 香冬青 Ilex suaveolens 480
赤杨叶 Alniphyllum fortunei 27 细齿叶柃 Eurya nitida 404
檵木 Loropetalum chinense 27 珍珠花 Lyonia ovalifolia 354
马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 15 杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 290
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