Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1075-1084.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017125

• Original Papers: Plant Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of vascular plants in the Ma’anling volcanic area of Hainan, China

Langxing Yuan, Youhai Shi, Xialan Cheng, Haolin Qin, Wenlong Wang, Kunkun Zhao, Zhixin Zhu, Huafeng Wang*()   

  1. Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228
  • Received:2017-04-21 Accepted:2017-07-01 Online:2018-05-05
  • Wang Huafeng

The Ma’anling volcanic area in Hainan Province, located in the southwest portion of Haikou, is the only tropical island volcano group of China, and contains China’s typical tropical and subtropical biological communities. We carried out a field investigation of the vascular plants in the area. In this paper, we examined the origination and evolution of flora, listing all plants in the region and analyzing the taxonomy and phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that there were 284 species of vascular plants in the Ma’anling area of Haikou belonging to 88 families and 241 genera, which included 194 native species, 23 exotic invasive species, 31 naturalized species, 40 cultivars and 4 rare and endangered plant species. In general, plant species were abundant in the crater area of the saddle ridge and species diversity of the trees under different land use regimes (plantation, secondary forest, and wasteland) was significant, whereas species diversity of shrubs and grasses in different land types was not significant. There were significant diversity differences between the plantations and the wastelands, while the diversity differences between the secondary forests and the plantations were insignificant. In addition, flora was mainly composed of tropical taxa that are most closely related to the flora of Guangdong; likewise, the flora of Vietnam and Guangxi are also closely linked. This study provided a basis for further exploration of flora as well as plant protection and utilization in the area.

Key words: Ma’, anling volcanic area, vascular plants, floristic geography, species diversity

Table 1

Plant species composition and life forms in Ma’anling volcanic area"

类群 Type 物种组成 Species composition 生活型组成 Life form composition
科 Family 属 Genus 种 Species 乔木 Tree (%) 灌木 Shrub (%) 草本 Herb (%) 藤本 Liana (%)
蕨类 Ferns 5 8 8 - - 7 (2.46) 1 (0.35)
被子植物 Angiosperm 83 233 276 - - - -
双子叶植物 Dicotyledon 70 203 243 71 (25.00) 73 (25.70) 65 (22.89) 34 (11.97)
单子叶植物 Monocotyledon 13 30 33 6 (2.11) 3 (1.06) 18 (6.34) 6 (2.11)
合计 Total 88 241 284 77 (27.11) 76 (26.76) 90 (31.69) 41 (14.44)

Fig. 1

The number of families of the top 14 plants and genera at Haikou Maanling volcanic area"

Table 2

Areal-types at family and genus levels of the Angiosperm in Ma’anling volcanic area"

分布区类型 Areal-types 科数 No. of family (%) 属数 No. of genus (%)
2 泛热带分布 Pantropic 38 (45.78) 83 (35.62)
3 热带亚洲至热带美洲间断分布 Tropical Asia and Tropical America disjuncted 6 (7.23) 20 (8.58)
4 旧世界热带分布 Old World Tropics 5 (6.02) 38 (16.31)
5 热带亚洲至大洋洲分布 Tropical Asia to Tropical Australasia 2 (2.41) 27 (11.59)
6 热带亚洲至热带非洲分布 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 0 (0.00) 12 (5.15)
7 热带亚洲分布 Tropical Asia (Indo-Malesia) 0 (0.00) 25 (10.73)
热带成分合计 Subtotal tropical elements (2-7) 51 (61.44) 205 (87.98)
8 北温带分布 North Temperate 6 (7.23) 5 (2.15)
9 东亚和北美间断分布 East Asia and North America disjuncted 0 (0.00) 8 (3.43)
13 中亚分布 Center Asia 0 (0.00) 1 (0.43)
14 东亚分布 East Asia 0 (0.00) 2 (0.86)
温带成分合计 Subtotal temperate elements (8-14) 6 (7.23) 16 (6.87)
(17) 热带非洲-热带美洲间断分布 Tropical Afria & Tropical America disjuncted 2 (2.41) 2 (0.86)
总计 Total 83 (100) 233 (100)

Table 3

Diversity indices of different live form species in different land use types in the crater area of Ma’anling"

Life forms
Berger-Parker 优势度指数
Berger-Parker index (d)
Shannon diversity index ( H')
Pielou evenness index (J)
次生林 Secondary forest 乔木 Tree 2.27 ± 0.89ab 1.04 ± 0.48b 0.86 ± 0.17a
灌木 Shrub 2.39 ± 0.59a 0.80 ± 0.29a 1.00 ± 0.01a
草丛 Herb 1.67 ± 0.46a 0.66 ± 0.28a 0.82 ± 0.09a
撂荒地 Wasteland 乔木 Tree 1.69 ± 0.60b 0.67 ± 0.47c 0.88 ± 0.14a
灌木 Shrub 2.26 ± 0.79a 0.71 ± 0.38a 1.00 ± 0.00a
草丛 Herb 1.66 ± 0.19a 0.72 ± 0.12a 0.84 ± 0.07a
人工林 Plantation 乔木 Tree 2.56 ± 1.03a 1.35 ± 0.46a 0.87 ± 0.11a
灌木 Shrub 2.44 ± 0.73a 0.82 ± 0.31a 1.00 ± 0.02a
草丛 Herb 1.69 ± 0.35a 0.69 ± 0.24a 0.84 ± 0.07a

Table 4

Phylogenetic diversity index of different land use types in the crater area of Ma’anling"

Phylogenetic diversity
Number of taxa
Mean phylogenetic distance
Mean nearest phylogenetic taxon distance
次生林 Secondary forest 1,546.33 ± 179.65a 12.43 ± 1.55a 213.60 ± 44.11ab 190.84 ± 54.74a
撂荒地 Wasteland 1,304.87 ± 202.84b 10.07 ± 2.16b 189.16 ± 41.29b 167.83 ± 60.02a
人工林 Plantation 1,620.81 ± 260.43a 13.20 ± 2.35a 225.38 ± 64.07a 201.65 ± 69.63a
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