Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (3): 286-294.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018005

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Evaluation of the effectiveness of marine protected areas: Methodologies and progress

Ruiling Song1, 3, Jinxian Yao1, 2, *(), Kaiyue Wu1, Xiaochuan Zhang1, 3, Zhi Lü1, 3, Zhengguang Zhu4, Lijie Yin1, 3   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Institute of Ocean Research, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    3 Center for Nature and Society, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    4 National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian, Liaoning 116023
  • Received:2018-01-09 Accepted:2018-03-19 Online:2018-05-05
  • Yao Jinxian E-mail:jxyao@pku.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

The continued decline of global biodiversity presents a huge challenge for biodiversity conservation, especially for marine biodiversity conservation. As an effective way to protect biodiversity, evaluating the effectiveness of MPAs (Marine Protected Areas) is becoming a critical issue. However, only limited assessment methodologies were specially designed for MPAs so far. Moreover, evaluation indicators have mainly focused on management effectiveness. Recently, the establishment of global biodiversity monitoring networks and databases and the application of new technologies (including remote sensing, sonar system, satellite tracking, and genomics) have provided available data and information for quantified conservation effectiveness evaluations at multiple levels from ecosystems to genes. Future evaluation should be based on long-term scientific monitoring with the assistance of new technologies, promoting the establishment of the biodiversity monitoring database and information sharing, and developing integrated and interdisciplinary evaluation systems to evaluate conservation effectiveness.

Key words: marine protected area, conservation effectiveness, biodiversity monitoring

Fig. 1

The number and area of marine protected areas in China have been growing since 1980. Data from 1980 to 2011 refer to Zeng (2013). Data from 2012 to 2017 refer to the website of State Oceanic Administration"

Table 1

Comparison of main methodologies for assessing management effectiveness of marine protected area"

METT
Management
Effectiveness
Tracking Tool
海洋保护区打分卡
Marine Tracking Tool
海洋保护区管理成效评估指南
How is your MPA doing
中美洲海洋保护区管理成效快速评估手册
Manual for the Rapid Evaluation of Management Effectiveness in Marine Protected Areas of Mesoamerica
开发机构
Developer
WWF/世界银行
WWF/World Bank
WWF/世界银行
WWF/World Bank
IUCN/WWF/NOAA 中美洲大堡礁系统
Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System
评估人员
Objects
保护区管理者、工作人员Managers and staff 保护区管理者、工作人员、专家
Managers, staff and experts
保护区管理者 、工作人员、专家、相关官员、社区居民
Managers, staff, experts, relevant officials, and local communities
人员专业要求
Professional
requirements
低 Low 低 Low 高 High 高 High
人力成本
Human cost
低 Low 低 Low 高 High 较低 Lower
可重复性
Repeatability
好 Good 好 Good 不好 Bad 较好 Better
主观影响
Effect of
subjectivity
较小 Smaller 较大 Larger 较小 Smaller 较小 Smaller
针对性
Marine-relevant
无 None 弱 Weak 强 Strong 强 Strong
实践应用
Application
至少用于86个国家的1,150个保护区
Applied in 1,150 protected areas across over 86 countries
欧洲广泛应用
Widely applied in
protected areas of
Europe
至少用于200多个保护区
Applied in over 200
protected areas
中美洲大堡礁系统
Applied in Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System
应用建议
Suggestion
可多次重复评估并监测变化
Best for repeat evaluation and monitoring
指标综合全面
Reference for
integrated indicators
适用于快速了解保护区管理和总体情况
Best for a snapshot in performance
and general progress
指标数量
Number of
indicators
30 34 42 47
共有指标
Common
indicators
立法与执法、管理计划、研究工作、人员管理与培训、经费预算、设备及维护、教育和意识培训
Legislation and law enforcement, management planning, research projects, staff management and training, budget, equipment and maintenance, education and awareness
保护区规章、目标、边界、资源普查信息和管理、当 地居民收入、访客设施和收费
Regulations, objectives, boundary, resource
inventory, local income, visitor facilities
当地利用海洋资源的活动和强度、依赖海洋资源的就业情况、服务基础设施、环境与生物指标
Practices and intensity of local use of marine resources, employment in activities related to marine resources, state of service infrastructure, biophysical indicators

利益相关者的参与、与管理者的沟通、满意度, 环境教育、守法情况
Participation, communication with managers, satisfaction of stakeholders, environment education, law compliance
特有指标
Specific
indicators
保护区的设计、土地和水的使用、所在社区的投入、商业旅游
Protected area design, land and water use, local investment, and commercial tourism
保护区是否在更大的海岸管理体系中、产品与服务、社区福利
Integration of MPA in a larger coastal management plan, products and services, and community welfare
对海洋资源的价值观、居民健康、市场、科学知识传播、社区组织水平、历史遗迹
Values of marine resources, local health, market, spread of scientific knowledge, level of community organization, and historical sites
识别威胁、标牌、志愿者项目
Threat recognition, signs/labels, and volunteer program
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