Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 516-524.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13212

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Diversity of ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) in restored habitats in the hill and gully area of Loess Plateau, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

Jia Hang1, Yun Shi1, 2, Wenhui Liu1, Dahan He1, 3, *()   

  1. 1. Agricultural College, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021
    2 .College of Resources and Environment, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021
    3 .State Key Laboratory for Restoration and Reconstruction of Degraded Ecosystem in North-western China, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021
  • Received:2013-09-30 Accepted:2014-01-14 Online:2014-07-24
  • He Dahan E-mail:hedahan@163.com

The aim of this study was to probe into changes in diversity of ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) and their relation to environmental variables within restored habitats in the hill and gully area of Loess Plateau, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. An investigation of ground-dwelling beetle communities was carried out using pitfall traps in six habitats including shrub/grassland, tree/shrub mix, fuel-wood forest, naturally restored grassland, plantation forest, and level terraced field in July and August, 2013. We found that species richness and abundance of individual ground-dwelling beetles was higher (P<0.05) in the shrub/grassland, tree/shrub mix, and fuel-wood forest compared to the other three stands. Species richness of ground-dwelling beetles was markedly lower (P<0.05) in naturally restored grassland, plantation forest and level terraced field, whereas the abundance of individual ground-dwelling beetles were higher in plantation forest and level terraced field than in naturally restored grassland. Jaccard indices revealed a high level of similarity amongst shrub/grassland, tree/shrub mix, and fuel-wood forest stands, and then between plantation forest stands and level terraced fields. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that herbaceous biomass, cover of shrub species and soil water content were the key factors affecting species richness of ground-dwelling beetles, while it was canopy cover and leaf litter depth that most affected total abundance. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the cover and depth of leaf litter, cover of canopy and herbaceous layers were important determinants of species abundance and composition of beetle communities. In conclusion, conversion to shrub/grasslands may be one option for raising ground-dwelling beetle diversity in the hill and gully area of Loess Plateau, Ningxia.

Key words: shrub/grassland, ground-dwelling beetles, ecological restoration, species diversity, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)

Fig. 1

Distribution of the sample sites in study area. SG, Shrub/grassland; TS, Tree/shrub mix; FF, Fuel-wood forest; PF, Plantation forest; RG, Naturally restored grassland; TF, Level terraced field; OR, Other regions."

Table 1

The environmental characteristics (mean±SE) in different habitats in the hill and gully area of Loess Plateau, Ningxia"

灌草混交林地
SG
乔灌混交林地
TS
生态薪炭林地
FF
天然封育草地
RG
生态经济林地
PF
水平农田地
TF
林冠层物种数
Species of canopy layer (CS)
0.00±0.00c 3.33±0.33a 0.00±0.00c 0.00±0.00c 1.00±0.00b 0.00±0.00c
林冠层盖度
Cover of canopy layer (CC) (%)
0.00±0.00c 56.67±6.89a 0.00±0.00c 0.00±0.00c 40.33±2.91b 0.00±0.00c
灌木层物种数
Number of shrub species (SN)
3.33±0.33a 1.33±0.33b 2.00±0.00b 0.00±0.00c 0.00±0.00c 0.00±0.00c
灌木层盖度
Cover of shrub species (SC) (%)
33.15±1.15b 23.21±1.15c 43.67±0.88a 0.00±0.00d 0.00±0.00d 0.00±0.00d
草本层物种数
Number of herb species (HN)
6.00±0.58b 8.00±0.58a 9.00±0.58a 6.67±0.33b 4.33±0.33c 3.33±0.33c
草本层盖度
Cover of herb species (HC) (%)
70.33±3.18a 67.67±1.45a 60.00±2.89ab 49.33±2.96b 23.67±1.33c 21.35±3.05c
枯落物盖度
Cover of leaf litter (LC) (%)
60.12±2.89ab 66.67±1.67a 56.62±1.68b 25.43±1.05c 23.35±1.68c 6.53±0.92d
枯落物厚度
Depth of leaf litter (LD) (cm)
0.37±0.02b 0.55±0.03a 0.33±0.03b 0.19±0.01c 0.11±0.01d 0.05±0.01d
草本层生物量
Herbaceous biomass (HB) (g/m2)
156.41±37.68a 72.40±7.26b 72.50±3.95b 51.27±7.90b 50.21±1.66b 18.95±2.09b
土壤含水量
Soil water content (SW) (%)
21.64±0.32a 20.71±0.35a 20.15±0.32a 14.13±0.57c 18.01±0.14b 18.13±0.29b
海拔 Elevation (ELV) (m) 1,775.00 1,783.00 1,808.67 1,728.33 1,726.33 1,833.00
坡向 Slop aspect (SA) 东北坡Northeast 西南坡
Southwest
西坡
West
西南坡
Southwest
东南坡
Southeast
东北坡
Northeast
坡度 Slop gradient (SG) 10° 15° 23° 21° 12°

Fig. 2

Species richness and abundance of individual ground- dwelling beetles collected by pitfall traps in different habitats. Means with different letters in bars are significantly different (P<0.05). The meanings of SG, TS, FF, RG, PF and TF are the same as those in Fig.1"

Table 2

Similarity coefficients of ground-dwelling beetle communities in different habitats"

乔灌混交林地
TS
生态薪炭林地
FF
天然封育草地
RG
生态经济林地
PF
水平农田地
TF
灌草混交林地 SG 0.63 0.67 0.46 0.39 0.49
乔灌混交林地 TS - 0.61 0.50 0.44 0.39
生态薪炭林地 FF - - 0.44 0.45 0.42
天然封育草地 RG - - - 0.52 0.50
生态经济林地 PF - - - - 0.63

Table 3

Regression analysis of environmental variables and species richness and abundance of individual ground-dwelling beetles"

回归模型 Regression model r2 P
物种丰富度 Species richness -11.68 + 5.35 SC + 0.78 HB + 1.64 SW 0.83 0.000**
个体数量 Abundance of individual 76.80 + 12.23 LD + 3.42 CC 0.72 0.000**

Fig. 3

CCA for beetle species and seven environmental variables which were the most important in shaping the beetle-abundance patterns. The beetle species are marked with 4+4 letter abbreviations, e.g., Carabus brandti = Carabran. The meanings of environmental factors are the same as those in Table 1."

Table S1

Species composition and distribution of ground-dwelling beetle communities within restored habitats in the hill and gully area of Loess Plateau, Ningxia http://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/PDF/w2013-212-1.pdf"


Family
物种
Species
灌草混交林地
SG
乔灌混交
林地
TS
生态薪炭
林地
FF
天然封育草地
RG
生态经
济林地
PF
水平农
田地
TF
总个体数
Total
百分比
%
步甲科
Carabidae
直角通缘步甲
Pterostichus gebleri
284 333 419 56 144 79 1,315 29.32
麻步甲
Carabus brandti
137 248 294 43 6 53 781 17.41
赤胸长步甲
Dolichus halensis
24 16 2 0 290 316 648 14.45
直角婪步甲
Harpalus corporosus
5 3 13 0 36 19 76 1.69
蒙古伪葬步甲
Pseudotaphoxenus
mongolicus
10 1 34 3 1 20 69 1.54
婪步甲属一种
Harpalus sp.1
7 1 2 6 38 0 54 1.20
锯步甲属一种
Pristosia sp.
33 4 10 0 1 1 49 1.09
双斑猛步甲
Cymindis binotata
25 12 11 0 1 0 49 1.09
婪步甲属一种
Harpalus sp.2
4 8 2 1 19 14 48 1.07
半猛步甲
Cymindis daimio
20 3 10 1 2 0 36 0.8
短翅伪葬步甲
Pseudotaphoxenus
brevipennis
4 1 14 3 7 7 36 0.8
黄鞘婪步甲
Harpalus pallidipennis
18 10 2 1 3 1 35 0.78
婪步甲属一种
Harpalus sp.3
5 8 3 0 0 10 26 0.58
婪步甲属一种
Harpalus sp.4
0 0 0 0 4 2 6 0.13
中华金星步甲
Calosoma chinense
2 0 0 0 0 2 4 0.09
考氏肉步甲
Broscus kozlovi
1 0 1 0 0 2 4 0.09
金龟科
Scarabaeidae
小驼嗡蜣螂
Onthophagus gibbulus
160 83 10 45 48 56 402 8.96
中华嗡蜣螂
O. sinicus
150 11 8 5 11 18 203 4.53
双顶嗡蜣螂
O. bivertex
3 0 1 0 0 0 4 0.09
大黑蜣螂属一种
Catharsius sp.
0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0.09
虎甲科
Cicindelidae
星斑虎甲
Cicindela kaleea
72 118 37 25 19 44 315 7.02
云纹虎甲
C. elisae
1 0 0 73 0 0 74 1.65
拟步甲科
Tenebrionidae
克小鳖甲
Microdera kraatzi
0 5 6 47 0 0 58 1.29
异形琵甲
Blaps variolosa
11 0 2 5 0 2 20 0.45
条纹琵甲
B. potanini
0 15 0 1 1 3 20 0.45
扁长琵甲
B. variolaris
1 8 0 0 0 2 11 0.25
象甲科
Curculionidae
暗褐尖筒象
Myllocerus pelidnus
3 13 0 28 0 0 44 0.98
苜蓿象甲
Hypera postica
4 0 0 0 0 0 4 0.09
甜菜象甲
Bothynoderse
punctiventris
2 1 1 0 0 0 4 0.09
芫菁科
Meloidae
苹斑芫菁
Mylabris calida
6 1 3 11 0 0 21 0.47
凹胸黑芫菁
Epicauta xantusi
2 2 0 1 0 0 5 0.11
暗头豆芫菁
Epicauta obscurocephala
2 2 0 0 0 0 4 0.09
鳃金龟科
Melolonthidae
小阔胫玛绢金龟
Maladera ovatula
2 2 3 1 0 1 9 0.20
福婆鳃金龟
Brahmina faldermanni
2 1 1 0 0 0 4 0.09
粪金龟科
Geotrupidae
戴锤角粪金龟
Bolbotrypes davidis
0 0 4 0 0 0 4 0.09
埋葬甲科
Silphidae
尸葬甲
Necrodes littoralis
2 4 0 2 0 0 8 0.18
大红斑葬甲
Nicrophorus japonicus
2 0 2 0 0 0 4 0.09
黄斑葬甲一种
Nicrophorus sp.
0 3 1 0 0 0 4 0.09
瓢虫科
Coccinellidae
七星瓢虫
Coccinella septempunctata
3 0 0 0 0 4 7 0.16
异色瓢虫
Harmonia axyridis
2 1 1 0 0 0 4 0.09
多异瓢虫
Hippodamia variegata
0 1 0 0 3 0 4 0.09
双七瓢虫
Coccinula
quatuordecimpustulata
0 0 0 2 0 2 4 0.09
叩甲科
Chrysomelidae
暗色槽缝叩甲
Agrypnus musculus
2 0 2 0 0 0 4 0.09
总计 Total 1,011 923 899 360 634 658 4,485
[1] Antvogel H, Bonn A (2001) Environmental parameters and microspatial distribution of insects: a case study of carabids in an alluvial forest.Ecography, 24, 470-482.
[2] Benayas JMR, Newton AC, Diaz A, Bullock JM (2009) Enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem services by ecological restoration: a meta-analysis.Science, 325, 1121-1124.
[3] Cameron KH, Leather SR (2012) Heathland management effects on carabid beetle communities: the relationship between bare ground patch size and carabid biodiversity.Journal of Insect Conservation, 16, 523-535.
[4] Christ TO, Wiens JA (1995) Individual movements and estimation of population size in darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).The Journal of Animal Ecology, 64, 733-746.
[5] Cushman JH, Waller JC, Hoak DR (2010) Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities and ecosystems.Journal of Vegetation Science, 21, 821-831.
[6] Dennis P, Young MR, Howard CL, Gordon IJ (1997) The response of epigeal beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Staphylin- idae) to varied grazing regimes on upland Nardus stricta grasslands.The Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 433-443.
[7] Diekötter T, Billeter R, Crist TO (2008) Effects of landscape connectivity on the spatial distribution of insect diversity in agricultural mosaic landscapes.Basic and Applied Ecology, 9, 298-307.
[8] Dong M (董鸣) (1996) Survey, Observation and Analysis of Terrestrial Biocommunities (陆地生物群落调查观测与分析). China Standard Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[9] Fournier E, Loreau M (2001) Respective roles of recent hedges and forest patch remnants in the maintenance of ground-beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) diversity in an agricultural landscape.Landscape Ecology, 16, 17-32.
[10] Gao ZN (高兆宁) (1999)Agricultural Insect Fauna of Ningxia (宁夏农业昆虫图志). China Agriculture Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[11] Gardiner MM, Landis DA, Gratton C, Schmidt N, O’Neal M, Mueller E, Chacon J, Heimpel GE, DiFonzo CD (2009) Landscape composition influences patterns of native and exotic lady beetle abundance.Diversity and Distributions, 15, 554-564.
[12] Hollier JA, McArthur P, Whitehouse D, Mortimer SR (2009) The ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages of chalk grasslands of known age in the Chilterns.British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 22, 73-80.
[13] Ikeda H, Homma K, Kubota K (2008) Ground-dwelling beetle community in beech forests of Sado Island, Japan: comparison with the mainland.Journal of Forest Research, 13, 357-364.
[14] Irmler U, Hoernes U (2003) Assignment and evaluation of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages to sites on different scales in a grassland landscape.Biodiversity and Conservation, 12, 1405-1419.
[15] Jankielsohn A, Scholtz CH, Louw SVDM (2001) Effect of habitat transformation on dung beetle assemblages: a com- parison between a South African nature reserve and neigh- boring farms.Environmental Entomology, 30, 474-483.
[16] Jongman RHG, ter Braak CJF, van Tongeren OFR(1995) Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[17] Kruess A, Tscharntke T (2002) Contrasting responses of plant and insect diversity to variation in grazing intensity.Biological Conservation, 106, 293-302.
[18] Kubota K, Lee CY, Kim JK (2000) Invertebrates on the forest floor in Kangwon Province, Republic of Korea, with special reference to Japanese red pine forest infested with the pine needle gall-midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis). In: Review of Forestry Culture, vol. 21 (ed. Japan Forestry Culture Association), pp. 137-146. Japan Forestry Culture Association, Tokyo. (in Japanese)
[19] Larsen KJ, Work TW (2003) Differences in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of original and reconstructed tallgrass prairies in northeastern Iowa, USA, and impact of 3-year spring burn cycles.Journal of Insect Conservation, 7, 153-166.
[20] Lassau SA, Hochuli DF, Cassis G, Reid CAM (2005) Effects of habitats complexity on forest beetle diversity: do functional groups respond consistently?Diversity and Distributions, 11, 73-82.
[21] Li SB (李生宝), Jiang Q (蒋齐), Li BC (李壁成) (2006) Research and Constructive Technology of Ecological Agricultural System in Southern Mountain in Ningxia (宁夏南部山区生态农业建设技术研究). Ningxia People’s Press, Yinchuan. (in Chinese)
[22] Liu JL (刘继亮), Li FR (李锋瑞), Liu QJ (刘七军), Niu RX (牛瑞雪) (2010) Seasonal variation in soil fauna community composition and diversity in an arid desert ecosystem of the Heihe Basin.Journal of Desert Research(中国沙漠), 30, 342-349. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[23] Liu K (刘库), Xie YZ (谢应忠), Li YK (李应科), Li Y (李云), Deng ZZ (邓占钊) (2006) Ecological degradation and restoration in Loess Hilly Area of South Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region: taking Pengyang County as an example.Bulletin of Soil and Water Conservation(水土保持通报), 26, 54-56. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[24] Louzada J, Lima AP, Matavelli R, Zambaldi L, Barlow J (2010) Community structure of dung beetles in Amazonian savannas: role of fire disturbance, vegetation and landscape structure.Landscape Ecology, 25, 631-641.
[25] Lövei GL, Sunderland KD (1996) Ecology and behavior of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).Annual Review of Entomology, 41, 231-256.
[26] Ma KP (马克平), Liu YM (刘玉明) (1994) Measurement of biotic community diversity. I. α diversity (Part 2).Chinese Biodiversity(生物多样性), 2, 231-239. (in Chinese)
[27] Ma KP (马克平), Liu CR (刘灿然), Liu YM (刘玉明) (1995) Measurement of biotic community diversity. II. β diversity.Chinese Biodiversity(生物多样性), 3, 38-43. (in Chinese)
[28] Mazía CN, Chaneton EJ, Kitzberger T (2006) Small-scale habitat use and assemblage structure of ground-dwelling beetles in a Patagonian shrub steppe.Journal of Arid Environments, 67, 177-194.
[29] Sroka K, Finch O-D (2006) Ground beetle diversity in ancient woodland remnants in north-western Germany (Coleoptera: Carabidae).Journal of Insect Conservation, 10, 335-350.
[30] Stork NE (1993) How many species are there?Biodiversity and Conservation, 2, 215-232.
[31] Topp W, Kappes H, Kulfan J, Zach P (2006) Litter-dwelling beetles in primeval forests of Central Europe: does dead- wood matter?Journal of Insect Conservation, 10, 229-239.
[32] Wang XP (王新谱), Yang GJ (杨贵军) (2010)Insects Fauna in Helan Mountain of Ningxia (宁夏贺兰山昆虫). Ningxia People’s Press, Yinchuan. (in Chinese)
[33] Wang XP, Wang ZN, Berndtsson R, Zhang YF, Pan YX (2011) Desert shrub stemflow and its significance in soil moisture replenishment.Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15, 561-567.
[34] Wang Y (王玉), Gao GC (高光彩), Fu BQ (付必谦), Wu Z (吴专) (2009) Composition and spatial distribution pattern of ground-dwelling beetle communities in Yeyahu Wetland, Beijing.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 17, 30-42. (in Chinese)
[35] Xu ZH (徐正会), Li JG (李继乖), Fu L (付磊), Long QZ (龙启珍) (2001) A study on the ant communities on west slope at different elevation of the Gaoligongshan Mountain Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. Zoological Research(动物学研究), 22, 58-63. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[36] Yaacobi G, Ziv Y, Rosenzweig ML (2007) Effects of interactive scale-dependent variables on beetle diversity patterns in a semi-arid agricultural landscape.Landscape Ecology, 22, 687-703.
[37] Yu XD (于晓东), Luo TH (罗天宏), Yang J (杨建), Zhou HZ (周红章) (2006a) Diversity of ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) in larch plantation with different stages of reforestation in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China.Zoological Research(动物学研究), 27, 1-11. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[38] Yu XD (于晓东), Luo TH (罗天宏), Zhou HZ (周红章) (2002) Composition and seasonal dynamics of litter-layer beetle community in the Dongling Mountain region, North China.Acta Entomologica Sinica(昆虫学报), 45, 785-793. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[39] Yu XD, Luo TH, Zhou HZ (2006) Effects of carabid beetles among regenerating and natural forest types in southwestern China.Forest Ecology and Management, 231, 169-177.
[40] Yu XD (于晓东), Luo TH (罗天宏), Zhou HZ (周红章), Yang J (杨建) (2006b) Influence of edge effect on diversity of ground-dwelling beetles across a forest-grassland ecotone in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China.Acta Entomologica Sinica(昆虫学报), 49, 277-286. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[41] Yu XD, Luo TH, Zhou HZ (2008) Distribution of carabid beetles among 40-year-old regenerating plantations and 100-year-old naturally regenerated forests in southwestern China.Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 2617-2625.
[42] Yu XD, Luo TH, Zhou HZ (2010) Distribution of ground- dwelling beetle assemblages (Coleoptera) across ecotones between natural oak forests and mature pine plantations in North China.Journal of Insect Conservation, 14, 617-626.
[1] Hu Yifeng, Yu Wenhua, Yue Yang, Huang Zhenglanyi, Li Yuchun, Wu Yi. Species diversity and potential distribution of Chiroptera on Hainan Island, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(4): 400-408.
[2] Mo Zhangqin. Re-legalizing China’s ecological conservation redline: The position, dilemma and path [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(3): 347-352.
[3] Yan Wenbo,Ji Shengnan,Shuai Lingying,Zhao Leigang,Zhu Dapeng,Zeng Zhigao. Spatial distribution patterns of mammal diversity in Yangxian County of Shaanxi Province on the southern slope of the Qinling Mountains [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 177-185.
[4] Chen Zuoyi, Xu Xiaojing, Zhu Suying, Zhai Mengyi, Li Yang. Species diversity and geographical distribution of the Chaetoceros lorenzianus complex along the coast of China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 149-158.
[5] Bo Wang,Yong Huang,Jiatang Li,Qiang Dai,Yuezhao Wang,Daode Yang. Amphibian species richness patterns in karst regions in Southwest China and its environmental associations [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(9): 941-950.
[6] Dexin Sun, Xiang Liu, Shurong Zhou. Dynamical changes of diversity and community assembly during recovery from a plant functional group removal experiment in the alpine meadow [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(7): 655-666.
[7] Yu Zhang, Gang Feng. Distribution pattern and mechanism of insect species diversity in Inner Mongolia [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(7): 701-706.
[8] Xiaqiu Tao,Shaopeng Cui,Zhigang Jiang,Hongjun Chu,Na Li,Daode Yang,Chunwang Li. Reptilian fauna and elevational patterns of the reptile species diversity in Altay Prefecture in Xinjiang, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(6): 578-589.
[9] Cheng Tian,Junqing Li,Xuyu Yang,Lin Yu,Dan Yuan,Yunxi Li. Preliminary surveys of wild animals using infrared camera in Wanglang National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(6): 620-626.
[10] Han-Dong WEN, Lu-Xiang LIN, Jie YANG, Yue-Hua HU, Min CAO, Yu-Hong LIU, Zhi-Yun LU, You-Neng XIE. Species composition and community structure of a 20 hm2 plot of mid-mountain moist evergreen broad-leaved forest on the Mts. Ailaoshan, Yunnan Province, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2018, 42(4): 419-429.
[11] Qian YANG, Wei WANG, Hui ZENG. Effects of nitrogen addition on the plant diversity and biomass of degraded grasslands of Nei Mongol, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2018, 42(4): 430-441.
[12] LIU Hai-Yue, LI Xin-Mei, ZHANG Lin-Lin, WANG Jiao-Jiao, HE Xue-Li. Eco-geographical distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Hedysarum scoparium in the desert zone of northwestern China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2018, 42(2): 252-260.
[13] Yiming Hu,Jianchao Liang,Kun Jin,Zhifeng Ding,Zhixin Zhou,Huijian Hu,Zhigang Jiang. The elevational patterns of mammalian richness in the Himalayas [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(2): 191-201.
[14] Tianqi Shang, Nuonan Ye, Haiqing Gao, Hongdi Gao, Lita Yi. Community Structure Analysis of a Public Welfare Forest Based on Multivariate Regression Trees [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2018, 53(2): 238-249.
[15] Zihong Chen, Xiaona Yang, Ningjing Sun, Ling Xu, Yuan Zheng, Yuming Yang. Species diversity and vertical distribution characteristics of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains, southwestern China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(12): 1308-1317.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] . Convention on biological diversity:the legal guarantee for conserving global biological resources[J]. Biodiv Sci, 1993, 01(1): 58 -60 .
[2] MO Xin-Chun. Recent Progress in Model Grass Brachypodium distachyon (Poaceae)[J]. Plant Diversity, 2014, 36(02): 197 -207 .
[3] Meixia Zhang, Yan Luo, Zhengbing Yan, Jiao Chen, Anwar Eziz, Kaihui Li and Wenxuan Han. Resorptions of 10 mineral elements in leaves of desert shrubs and their contrasting responses to aridity[J]. J Plant Ecol, 2019, 12(2): 358 -366 .
[4] Li-Na SHA, Xing FAN, Hai-Qin ZHANG, Hou-Yang KANG, Yi WANG, Xiao-Li WANG, Li ZHANG, Chun-Bang DING, Rui-Wu YANG, Yong-Hong ZHOU. Phylogenetic relationships in Leymus (Triticeae; Poaceae): Evidence from chloroplast trnH-psbA and mitochondrial coxII intron sequences[J]. J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(6): 722 -734 .
[5] PANG XinAn, LIU-Xing, LIU Hong, WU Cui, WANG Jing-Yuan, YANG Shu-Xiang, WANG Qing-Feng. The geographic distribution and habitat of the Isoetes plants in China[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2003, 11(4): 288 -294 .
[6] GONG Qiang-Bang, LI Zhi-Min, PENG De-Li, NIU Yiang, SUN Hang, ZHANG Zhi-Qiang. Male Flowers and Relationship between Plant Size and Sex Expression in Herbaria of Nomocharis Species (Liliaceae)[J]. Plant Diversity, 2015, 37(01): 11 -20 .
[7] LI De-Zhu-, WANG Yu-Hua-, YI Ting-Shuang. The Next-Generation Flora iFlora[J]. Plant Diversity, 2012, 34(6): 525 -531 .
[8] YANG Qin-Er. Cytology of eleven species in the genus Ranunculus L. and five in its four related genera from China[J]. J Syst Evol, 2001, 39(5): 405 -422 .
[9] ZHANG Wen-Li, CHEN Shi-Ping, MIAO Hai-Xia, LIN Guang-Hui. EFFECTS ON CARBON FLUX OF CONVERSION OF GRASSLAND STEPPE TO CROPLAND IN CHINA[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(6): 1301 -1311 .
[10] LI Yi-Ming, XU Long, MA Yong, YANG Jin-Yuan, YANG Yu-Hui. The species richness of nonvolant mammals in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China: distribution patterns along elevational gradient[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2003, 11(1): 1 -9 .