Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 358-365.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13202


• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Recovery dynamics of secondary forests with different disturbance intensity in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve

Yuanjie Xu1, 2(), Dunmei Lin2, Xiangcheng Mi2, Haibao Ren2, Keping Ma2   

  1. 1. Yunnan Academy of Biodiversity, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    2. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2013-09-17 Accepted:2014-02-22 Online:2014-06-04

Understanding the underlying processes of secondary forest recovery after disturbances such as logging is essential for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem rehabilitation. We surveyed 12 forest plots (1 ha in size) with different extents of anthropogenic disturbances in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve and explored the community dynamics of secondary forest recovery by applying multivariate statistical ana- lysis. We found significant differences in community composition among various recovery phases, whereas high similarities of community composition were observed within the same recovery phase. No significant difference in species richness was observed among recovery stages, but species richness tended to increase during the recovery process. Species evenness in Chinese fir forests was relatively low whereas no significant difference occurred in other forests. The main differences in community composition and species diversity were found in the canopy layer. Respective indicator species were found in shrubs and regeneration layers during different recovery phases. The most representative indicator species were deciduous shrubs or heliophilous trees for plantation forests of Chinese fir, evergreen shrubs or small trees for young secondary forests, sub-canopy evergreen trees for old secondary forests, and canopy species for old-growth forests, respectively. Overall, species diversity recovered rigorously. Also the life-form composition of saplings in the same recovery phase presented consistent trends in spite of complex and unpredictable changes in species composition during the recovery process.

Key words: secondary forest recovery, evergreen broad-leaved forests, community composition, species diversity, anthropogenic disturbances, Gutianshan National Nature Reserve

Fig. 1

Hierarchical clustering of 12 forest plots during four recovery phases in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve. Chinese fir forest plots include 01, 07, 11; Young secondary forest plots include 03, 08, 09; Old secondary forest plots include 05, 06, 12; Old-growth forest plots include 02, 04, 10."

Table 1

Average importance values (%) of dominant species and their contributions (%) to within-group similarity"

Species name
Chinese fir forests (CFF)
幼龄次生林 Young secondary forests (YSF) 老次生林
Old secondary forests (OSF)
Old-growth forests (OGF)
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 71.27 (25.85)
檵木 Loropetalum chinensis 3.06 (4.69) 2.70 (2.89) 6.17 (4.74)
隔药柃 Eurya muricata 3.02 (4.68) 2.78 (3.04) 2.80 (3.77)
马尾松 Pinus massoniana 1.71 (3.79) 7.37 (4.92) 14.33 (7.55)
石栎 Lithocarpus glaber 1.90 (3.54) 5.32 (3.89) 7.98 (5.36)
山合欢 Albizia kalkora 0.81 (2.82)
黄瑞木 Adinandra millettii 0.77 (2.34)
柳叶蜡梅 Chimonanthus salicifolius 3.05 (2.08)
黄檀 Dalbergia hupeana 0.64 (1.98)
拟赤杨 Alniphyllum fortunei 0.59 (1.95)
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 23.76 (9.03) 5.89 (4.31) 15.69 (8.73)
米槠 C. carlesii 9.04 (5.27) 8.32 (3.43)
木荷 Schima superba 4.56 (3.51) 11.30 (6.61) 10.95 (6.25)
马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 3.11 (3.26) 5.44 (4.86)
麂角杜鹃 R. latoucheae 2.95 (3.18) 5.36 (5.26)
短尾越橘 Vaccinium carlesii 3.30 (3.04)
青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 2.52 (2.80) 5.39 (4.02) 5.12 (2.53)
Castanopsis fargesii 2.18 (2.94
杨梅 Myrica rubra 2.04 (2.82)
浙江红山茶 Camellia chekiangoleosa 2.43 (2.94)
浙江新木姜子 Neolitsea aurata var. chekiangensis 1.47 (2.81)
红楠 Machilus thunbergii 2.74 (2.46)
窄基红褐柃 Eurya rubiginosa var. attenuata 2.38 (2.49)

Fig. 2

Non-metric multidimensional scale (NMS) ordination of canopy, sub-canopy, and shrub and regeneration layers of 12 forest plots during four recovery phases in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve. C, S, R represent canopy layer, sub-canopy layer, shrub and regeneration layer, respectively. Numbers are plot codes. CFF, OGF, OSF, YSF, see Table 1."

Fig. 3

Species diversity indices of 12 forest plots during four recovery phases in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve. CFF, OGF, OSF, YSF, see Table 1."

Fig. 4

K-dominance plot of canopy, sub-canopy, shrubs and regeneration layers of 12 forest plots during four recovery phases in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve. CFF, OGF, OSF, YSF, see Table 1."

Table 2

Indicator species of shrubs and regeneration layer of 12 forest plots during four recovery phases in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve"

树种 Tree species 组别
山合欢 Albizia kalkora CFF 84.3 0.0188
拟赤杨 Alniphyllum fortunei CFF 59.7 0.0346
楤木 Aralia chinensis CFF 80.4 0.0188
紫珠 Callicarpa bodinieri CFF 69.0 0.0412
大青 Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum CFF 62.3 0.0346
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata CFF 98.6 0.0188
黄檀 Dalbergia hupeana CFF 79.7 0.0188
小果冬青 Ilex micrococca CFF 93.5 0.0188
山胡椒 Lindera glauca CFF 85.0 0.0188
山鸡椒 Litsea cubeba CFF 89.2 0.0188
马尾松 Pinus massoniana CFF 66.2 0.0188
化香 Platycarya strobilacea CFF 86.3 0.0354
豆腐柴 Premna microphylla CFF 68.4 0.0168
水马桑 Weigela japonica var. sinica CFF 86.2 0.0188
栀子 Gardenia jasminoides CSF 45.0 0.0486
野漆 Toxicodendron succedaneum YSF 74.6 0.0496
短尾越桔 Vaccinium carlesii YSF 48.8 0.0456
厚叶冬青 Ilex elmerriliana YSF 67.9 0.0128
宁波木犀 Osmanthus cooperi YSF 74.7 0.0160
石斑木 Rhaphiolepis indica YSF 65.7 0.0160
赤楠 Syzygium buxifolium YSF 75.7 0.0088
冬青 Ilex chinensis OSF 67.1 0.0190
浙闽樱 Prunus schneideriana OSF 51.4 0.0130
檵木 Loropetalum chinensis OSF 49.9 0.0166
乳源木莲 Manglietia yuyuanensis OSF 91.6 0.0376
刨花楠 Machilus pauhoi OSF 100.0 0.0190
浙江红山茶 Camellia chekiangoleosa OGF 94.0 0.0146
窄基红褐柃 Eurya rubiginosa var. attenuata OGF 64.6 0.0332
麂角杜鹃 Rhododendron latoucheae OGF 55.1 0.0162
秀丽槭 Acer elegantulum OGF 100.0 0.0162
钩栲 Castanopsis tibetana OGF 96.9 0.0446
浙江樟 Cinnamomum japonicum OGF 97.8 0.0162
灰白蜡瓣花 Corylopsis glandulifera OGF 99.3 0.0162
小叶青冈 Cyclobalanopsis gracilis OGF 97.5 0.0162
细叶青冈 C. myrsinaefolia OGF 100.0 0.0162
尾叶冬青 Ilex wilsonii OGF 96.5 0.0066
马醉木 Pieris japonica OGF 74.7 0.0334

Fig. S1

Topographical maps of 12 forest plots during four recovery phases in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve. The figures in the map refer to relative elevations of forest plots; Chinese fir forest plots include 01, 07, 11; Young secondary forest plots include 03, 08, 09; Old secondary forest plots include 05, 06, 12; Old-growth forest plots include 02, 04, 10."

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