Biodiversity Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 651-657.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.07095

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Minimum plot size for estimating plant biodiversity of the alpine grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

Shikui Dong1, *(), Lin Tang1, Xuexia Wang1, Yinghui Liu2, Shiliang Liu1, Quanru Liu2, Yu Wu1, Yuanyuan Li1, Xukun Su1, Chen Zhao1   

  1. 1 School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    2 College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    3 College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2013-04-11 Accepted:2013-09-05 Online:2013-12-02
  • Dong Shikui E-mail:dongshikui@sina.com

To determine the appropriate plot size for estimating plant diversity of different types of alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), i.e. alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert, seven models were applied in the examination of species-area relationships. Depending on the optimal species-area relationship curves, the minimum sizes of sampling plot for each type of grassland under healthy and degraded conditions were obtained. The findings were as follows: (1) Non-saturation curve models were most suitable for describing species-area relationships of alpine grasslands on the QTP; (2) For all three types of alpine grassland, the minimum plot size for healthy grasslands was larger than that for degraded ones; (3) Minimum plot sizes for estimating plant diversity were 108 m2 and 82 m2, respectively, for healthy and degraded alpine meadow, 130 m2 and 81 m2, respectively, for healthy and degraded alpine steppe, and 60 m2 and 41 m2, respectively, for healthy and degraded alpine desert.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, alpine grasslands, species-area relationship, minimum plot size

Fig. 1

Sketch map for determining the species-area relationships"

Table 1

Fitting results of species-area relationships for alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau"

草地类型
Grassland type
健康状况
Health status
方程
Function
a b c F Pr>F R2
高寒草甸
Alpine meadow
健康
Healthy
1 3.441 24.946 - 651.257 <0.0001 0.875
2 6.272 40.071 0.876 423.507 <0.0001 0.871
3 3.451 1,364.587 - 650.831 <0.0001 0.875
4 23.342 0.113 - 482.725 <0.0001 0.832
5 26.939 0.278 41.808 274.171 <0.0001 0.804
6 1.680 0.466 41.638 259.646 <0.0001 0.793
7 217.283 5.588 - 271.118 <0.0001 0.708
退化
Degraded
1 2.769 21.515 - 1,540.854 <0.0001 0.937
2 11.953 69.405 0.732 1,100.360 <0.0001 0.941
3 2.770 2,353.238 - 1,532.933 <0.0001 0.937
4 20.307 0.106 - 846.787 <0.0001 0.886
5 21.343 0.385 34.407 380.051 <0.0001 0.832
6 1.478 0.529 34.447 348.447 <0.0001 0.818
7 238.525 7.376 - 422.309 <0.0001 0.776
高寒草原
Alpine steppe
健康
Healthy
1 1.862 12.181 - 1,427.120 <0.0001 0.947
2 2.991 17.420 0.881 941.193 <0.0001 0.946
3 1.871 658.661 - 1,418.386 <0.0001 0.947
4 11.255 0.124 - 747.963 <0.0001 0.900
5 14.171 0.490 20.504 264.256 <0.0001 0.814
6 2.277 1.836 19.771 240.815 <0.0001 0.797
7 93.693 4.730 - 393.353 <0.0001 0.813
退化
Degraded
1 2.015 13.200 - 353.851 <0.0001 0.870
2 3.554 18.528 0.243 226.514 <0.0001 0.865
3 2.023 670.840 - 352.227 <0.0001 0.870
4 12.174 0.124 - 266.130 <0.0001 0.829
5 15.700 1.006 21.505 110.500 <0.0001 0.730
6 2.280 1.912 21.357 104.383 <0.0001 0.715
7 104.588 4.889 - 171.842 <0.0001 0.740
高寒荒漠
Alpine desert
健康
Healthy
1 0.911 4.119 - 113.059 <0.0001 0.776
2 0.039 1.206 6.395 99.742 <0.0001 0.827
3 1.062 29.764 - 128.208 <0.0001 0.801
4 3.298 0.189 - 156.035 <0.0001 0.834
5 8.207 0.023 10.542 71.423 <0.0001 0.764
6 3.284 0.112 9.667 63.087 <0.0001 0.735
7 2.141 0.221 - 70.931 <0.0001 0.659
退化
Degraded
1 0.367 1.876 - 70.169 <0.0001 0.545
2 0.448 1.911 0.929 44.850 <0.0001 0.527
3 0.387 108.802 - 71.025 <0.0001 0.550
4 1.644 0.156 - 67.907 <0.0001 0.533
5 2.858 0.680 3.477 38.833 <0.0001 0.468
6 4.215 2.275 3.399 38.392 <0.0001 0.463
7 6.695 1.886 - 60.357 <0.0001 0.487

Table 2

Relationship between estimation accuracy and plot size for estimating plant diversity in different types of grassland"

草地类型
Grassland type
健康状况
Health status
最优拟合模型
Optimal function
不同精度下的样地面积
Plot areas under different accuracy (m2)
ρ= 60% ρ= 70% ρ= 80% ρ= 84% ρ= 90%
高寒草甸
Alpine meadow
健康 Healthy S = 24.956 + 3.441* lnA 5 24 108 197 481
退化 Degraded S = (69.405+11.952* lnA)0.732 6 33 210 455 1477
高寒草原
Alpine steppe
健康 Healthy S = 12.181 + 1.862 * lnA 13 61 279 514 1280
退化 Degraded S = 13.200 + 2.015 * lnA 17 81 386 720 1841
高寒荒漠
Alpine desert
健康 Healthy S = 3.298*A0.189 39 88 178 231 332
退化 Degraded S = 0.387*ln(108.802*A+1) 8 23 72 113 220

Fig. 2

Species-area curves for different types of grasslands"

Table 3

Minimum plot for estimating the plant diversity in different types of grassland"

草地类型
Grassland type
健康状况
Health status
平均总物种数
Average numbers of
plant species
占总物种比例
Proportions of total
species numbers
最小样地面积
Minimum area of
sampling plots
最小面积处曲线斜率
Slope at the minimum plot size
高寒草甸
Alpine meadow
健康 Healthy 51.33 80% 108 0.03
退化 Degraded 45.00 75% 82 0.03
高寒草原
Alpine steppe
健康 Healthy 28.33 75% 130 0.01
退化 Degraded 31.50 70% 81 0.02
高寒荒漠
Alpine desert
健康 Healthy 11.00 65% 60 0.02
退化 Degraded 4.33 75% 41 0.01
1 Bai YF (白永飞), Li LH (李凌浩), Huang JH (黄建辉), Chen ZZ (陈佐忠) (2001) The influence of plant diversity and functional composition on ecosystem stability of four Stipa communities in the Inner Mongolia Plateau.Acta Botanica Sinica(植物学报), 43, 280-287. (in Chinese with English abstract)
2 Chu CJ, Maestre FT, Xiao S, Weiner J, Wang YS, Duan ZH, Wang G (2008) Balance between facilitation and resource competition determines biomass-density relationships in plant populations.Ecology Letters, 11, 1189-1197.
3 Dong M (董鸣) (1997) Survey, Observation and Analysis of Terrestrial Biocommunities (陆地生物群落调查观测与分析). China Standard Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
4 Guo ZG (郭正刚), Cheng GD (程国栋), Wang GX (王根绪) (2004a) Plant diversity of alpine Kobresia meadow in the northern region of the Tibetan Plateau.Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology(冰川冻土), 26, 95-100. (in Chinese with English abstract)
5 Guo ZG (郭正刚), Liang TG (梁天刚), Liu XY (刘兴元), Zhang HJ (张洪江) (2003) Species diversity of grassland communities in the Aletai region of the northern Xinjiang Province.Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica(西北植物学报), 23, 1719-1724. (in Chinese with English abstract)
6 Guo ZG (郭正刚), Wang GX (王根绪), Shen YY (沈禹颖), Cheng GD (程国栋) (2004b) Plant species diversity of grassland plant communities in permafrost regions of the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 24, 149-155. (in Chinese with English abstract)
7 Huang Y (黄莹), Wang J (王娟) (2008) The research on determination of the minimum sampling area of community.Shandong Forestry Science and Technology(山东林业科技), (1), 97-98. (in Chinese with English abstract)
8 Hutchings MJ (1983) Plant diversity in four chalk grassland sites with different aspects.Vegetatio, 53, 179-187.
9 Kallimanis AS, Halley JM, Vokou D, Sgardelis SP (2008) The scale of analysis determines the spatial pattern of woody species diversity in the Mediterranean environment.Plant Ecology, 196, 143-151.
10 Kazakis G, Ghosn D, Vogiatzakis IN, Papanastasis VP (2007) Vascular plant diversity and climate change in the alpine zone of the Lefka Ori, Crete.Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 1603-1615.
11 Li DS (李东胜), Guo WJ (郭万军), Xu ZQ (许中旗), Wang Y (王妍), Xu CL (徐成立), Huang XR (黄选瑞), Ji XL (纪晓林) (2008) The impact of sample area and sample amount on the results of community species diversity measure: a case study with the shrub community in the west region of Yanshan Mountain.Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis(江西农业大学学报), 30, 1079-1084. (in Chinese with English abstract)
12 Li FX (李凤霞), Zhang DG (张德罡) (2005) Indicators and recovery approaches of degenerated grassland in China.Grassland and Turf(草原与草坪), (1), 24-28. (in Chinese with English abstract)
13 Li X (李霞), Tang J (唐金), Wan HM (万红梅) (2011) Minimum sampling area for desert riparian forest community in lower reaches of Tarim River.Journal of Desert Research(中国沙漠), 31, 1221-1225. (in Chinese with English abstract)
14 Liu XN (柳小妮), Sun JL (孔九林), Zhang DG (张德罡), Pu XP (蒲小鹏), Xu GP (徐广平) (2008) A study on the community structure and plant diversity of alpine meadow under different degrees of degradation in the Eastern Qilian Mountains.Acta Prataculturae Sinica(草业学报), 17, 1-11. (in Chinese with English abstract)
15 Ma SL (马生林) (2008) It is urgent to protect the biodiversity of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In: National Biodiversity Conservation and Exotic Harmful Species Prevention Seminar (全国生物多样性保护及外来有害物种防治交流研讨会论文集), pp. 76-78. , accessed on April 10, 2013. (in Chinese)
16 Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China (中华人民共和国农业部) (1997) Grassland Resources in China (中国草地资源). China Science and Technology Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
17 Namgail T, Rawat GS, Mishra C, Wieren SE, Prins HHT (2012) Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas.Journal of Plant Research, 125, 93-101.
18 Ren XM (任学敏), Yang GH (杨改河), Wang DY (王得祥), Qin XW (秦晓威), Liu ZX (刘振学), Zhao SX (赵双喜), Bai Y (白宇) (2011) Minimum sampling areas for shrub and herb layers of several types of plant communities in Taibai Mountain.Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica(西北植物学报), 31, 1024-1031. (in Chinese with English abstract)
19 Stohlgren TJ, Bull KA, Otsuki Y (1998) Comparison of rangeland vegetation sampling techniques in the Central Grasslands.Journal of Rangeland Management, 51, 164-172.
20 Stohlgren TJ, Chong GW, Kalkhan MA, Schell LD (1997a) Multiscale sampling of plant diversity: effects of minimum mapping unit size.Ecological Applications, 7, 1064-1074.
21 Stohlgren TJ, Coughenour MB, Chong GW, Binkley D, Kalkhan MA, Schell LD, Buckley DJ, Berry JK (1997b) Landscape analysis of plant diversity.Landscape Ecology, 12, 155-170.
22 Tang L (唐龙), Hao WF (郝文芳), Sun HG (孙洪罡), Liang ZS (梁宗锁) (2005) Fitting and assessment of species-area curves of four native pasture communities on Loess Plateau.Agricultural Research in the Arid Areas(干旱地区农业研究), 23(4), 83-88. (in Chinese with English abstract)
23 Wang CT (王长庭), Long RJ (龙瑞军), Ding LM (丁路明) (2004) The effects of differences in functional group diversity and composition on plant community productivity in four types of alpine meadow communities.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 12, 403-409. (in Chinese with English abstract)
24 Wang CT (王长庭), Long RJ (龙瑞军), Wang QL (王启兰), Cao GM (曹广民), Shi JJ (施建军), Du YG (杜岩功) (2008) Response of plant diversity and productivity to soil resources changing under grazing disturbance on an alpine meadow.Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 28, 4144-4152. (in Chinese with English abstract)
25 Wang SP, Duan JC, Xu GP, Wang YF, Zhang ZH, Rui YC, Luo CY, Xu B, Zhu XX, Chang XF, Cui XY, Niu HS, Zhao XQ, Wang WY (2012) Effects of warming and grazing on soil N availability, species composition, and a NPP in an alpine meadow.Ecology, 93, 2365-2376.
26 Wang WY, Wang QJ, Wang HC (2006) The effect of land management on plant community composition, species diversity, and productivity of alpine Kobersia steppe meadow.Ecological Research, 21, 181-187.
27 Wang ZG (王志高), Ye WH (叶万辉), Cao HL (曹洪麟), Lian JY (练琚愉) (2008) Spatial distribution of species diversity indices in a monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest at Dinghushan Mountain.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 16, 454-461. (in Chinese with English abstract)
28 Wen L (温璐), Dong SK (董世魁), Zhu L (朱磊), Shi JJ (施建军), Liu DM (刘德梅), Wang YL (王彦龙), Ma YS (马玉寿) (2011) The effect of natural factors and disturbance intensity on spacial heterogeneity of plant diversity in alpine meadow.Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 31, 1844-1854. (in Chinese with English abstract)
29 Xing XJ (星学军) (2009) Investigation and analysis of grassland characteristics on degraded alpine meadow in the Three River Source Region. Heilongjiang Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine (Science and Technology) (黑龙江畜牧兽医(科技版)), 9, 50-51. (in Chinese)
30 Xu YF (许岳飞), Yixi-Cuomu (益西措姆), Fu JJ (付娟娟), Chen H (陈浩), Miao YJ (苗彦军), Chen J (陈俊), Hu TM (呼天明), Shan JG (镡建国) (2012) Response of plant diversity and soil nutrient to grazing intensity in Kobresia pygmaea meadow of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.Acta Agrestia Sinica(草地学报), 20, 1026-1032. (in Chinese with English abstract)
31 Yang C (杨持), Bao R (宝荣) (1986) Optimum sampling area for the studies of distribution pattern in Aneurolepidium chinensis steppe community.Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 6, 324-329. (in Chinese with English abstract)
32 Yang DL (杨殿林), Han GD (韩国栋), Hu YG (胡跃高), Wuyun-gerile (乌云格日勒) (2006) Effects of grazing intensity on plant diversity and aboveground biomass of Stipa baicalensis grassland.Chinese Journal of Ecology(生态学杂志), 25, 1470-1475. (in Chinese with English abstract)
33 Yang ZL, Powell JR, Zhang CH, Du GZ (2012) The effect of environmental and phylogenetic drivers on community assembly in an alpine meadow community.Ecology, 93, 2321-2328.
34 Yang ZS (杨子松), Li YX (黎云祥), Liu W (刘伟), Wu TD (吴天德), Wang ZG (王中国) (2010) Fitting of species-area relationship and determination of minimum sampling area for plant communities on barren hillsides of arid valley in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River.Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment(生态与农村环境学报), 26, 227-230. (in Chinese with English abstract)
35 Zhang JZ (张忠华), Hu G (胡刚), Zhu JD (祝介东), Ni J (倪健) (2012) Scale-dependent spatial variation of species abundance and richness in two mixed evergreen-deciduous broad-leaved karst forests.Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 32, 5663-5672. (in Chinese with English abstract)
36 Zhou HK (周华坤), Zhao XQ (赵新全), Wen J (温军), Chen Z (陈哲), Yao BQ (姚步青), Yang YW (杨元武), Xu WX (徐维新), Duan JC (段吉闯) (2012) The characteristics of soil and vegetation of degenerated alpine steppe in the Yellow River Source Region.Acta Prataculturae Sinica(草业学报), 21(5), 1-11. (in Chinese with English abstract)
37 Zhu JM (朱锦懋), Jiang ZL (姜志林) (1999) The modifiable areal unit problem of species diversity in the forest community of northern Fujian Province.Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 19, 304-311. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[1] Yunzhi Qin,Jiaxin Zhang,Jianming Liu,Mengting Liu,Dan Wan,Hao Wu,Yang Zhou,Hongjie Meng,Zhiqiang Xiao,Handong Huang,Yaozhan Xu,Zhijun Lu,Xiujuan Qiao,Mingxi Jiang. Community composition and spatial structure in the Badagongshan 25 ha Forest Dynamics Plot in Hunan Province [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(9): 1016-1022.
[2] Xu Xiang, Zhang Huayong, Xie Ting, Sun Qingqing, Tian Yonglan. Elevational pattern of seed plant diversity in Xishuangbanna and its mechanisms [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(7): 678-689.
[3] Zhigang Jiang,Lili Li,Yiming Hu,Huijian Hu,Chunwang Li,Xiaoge Ping,Zhenhua Luo. Diversity and endemism of ungulates on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Evolution and conservation [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(2): 158-170.
[4] Shaopeng Cui,Xiao Luo,Chunwang Li,Huijian Hu,Zhigang Jiang. Predicting the potential distribution of white-lipped deer using the MaxEnt model [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(2): 171-176.
[5] Huijie Qiao,Xiaoyi Wang,Wei Wang,Zhenhua Luo,Ke Tang,Yan Huang,Shengnan Yang,Weiwei Cao,Xinquan Zhao,Jianping Jiang,Junhua Hu. From nature reserve to national park system pilot: Changes of environmental coverage in the Three-River-Source National Park and implications for amphibian and reptile conservation [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(2): 202-209.
[6] Manyu Yan,Xiaojun Du,Aihua Zhao,Mingchun Peng. Individual woody species-area relationship in a deciduous broad-leaved forest in Baotianman, Henan Province [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(5): 630-640.
[7] Lei Zhong,Chia-Hao Chang-Yang,Pin Lu,Xueping Gu,Zupei Lei,Yanben Cai,Fangdong Zheng,I-Fang Sun,Mingjian Yu. Community structure and species composition of the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest: the analyses for a 9 ha forest dynamics plot in Wuyanling Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province, East China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(5): 619-629.
[8] SHI Sheng-Bo, SHANG Yan-Xia, SHI Rui, and ZHANG Bo. Responses of PSII photochemistry efficiency and photosynthetic pigments of Saussurea superba to short-term UV-B-supplementation [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(5): 420-430.
[9] JIANG Jun, ZHANG Chun-Yu, and ZHAO Xiu-Hai. Plant species-area relationship in a 42-hm2 research plot of coniferous and board-leaved mixed forest in Jiaohe, Jilin Province, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(1): 30-38.
[10] CHI Xiu-Lian, TANG Zhi-Yao. Effects of area, temperature and geometric constraints on elevational patterns of species richness: a case study in the Mountain Taibai, Qinling Mountains, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2011, 35(4): 362-370.
[11] WU Li-Bo, GU Song, ZHAO Liang, XU Shi-Xiao, ZHOU Hua-Kun, FENG Chao, Xu Wei-Xin, LI Ying-Nian, ZHAO Xin-Quan, TANG Yan-Hong. Variation in net CO2 exchange, gross primary production and its affecting factors in the planted pasture ecosystem in Sanjiangyuan Region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2010, 34(7): 770-780.
[12] YANG Kuo, HUANG Jian-Hui, DONG Dan, MA Wen-Hong, HE Jin-Sheng. Canopy leaf N and P stoichiometry in grassland communities of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2010, 34(1): 17-22.
[13] SHANG Zhan-Huan, LONG Rui-Jun, MA Yu-Shou, DING Lu-Ming. SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY AND SIMILARITY OF ADULT PLANTS AND SEEDLINGS IN ‘BLACK SOIL LAND’ SECONDARY WEED COMMUNITY, QINGHAI-TIBETAN PLATEAU [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(5): 1157-1165.
[14] WANG Yi-Feng, GAO Hong-Yan, SHI Hai-Yan, WANG Jian-Hong, DU Guo-Zhen. ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF SAUSSUREA PARVIFLORA’S SEXUAL ORGANS, QINGHAI-TIBETAN PLATEAU, CHINA [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(2): 379-384.
[15] DUAN Yuan-Wen, HE Ya-Ping, ZHANG Ting-Feng, LIU Jian-Quan. DELAYED SELFING IN AN ALPINE SPECIES GENTIANOPSIS BARBATA [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2007, 31(1): 110-117.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Ke Shan-qiang;Gui Yao-lin and Guo Zhong-chen. Studies on the Artificial Seeds of Plant[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1989, 6(04): 205 -210 .
[2] Pan Jie and Jian Ling-cheng. Advances of the Studies on Biomembranes and Proteins in Plant Freezing Injury and Cold Hardiness[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1990, 7(01): 1 -5 .
[3] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(专辑): 6 -9 .
[4] ZHANG Jian LIU Mei-Yan XIAO Wei. Study on Enhancement of Waterlogging Tolerance of Cucumber Seedlings with Loofah as Stock[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(01): 85 -89 .
[5] Jian Zhang;Guixia Xu;Haoyue Xue;Jin Hu. Foundation and Current Progress of Plant Evolutionary Developmental Biology[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2007, 24(01): 1 -30 .
[6] HE Feng WU Zhen-Bin. Application of Aquatic Plants in Sewage Treatment and Water Quality Improvement[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(06): 641 -647 .
[7] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 2 .
[8] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 80 .
[9] Zheng Zu-ling;Chu Qi-ren and Zhang Cheng-mei. Screening Blast Reristant Mutant by Rice Anther Culture[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1984, 2(04): 41 -43 .
[10] Yu Tetsun. Book Review: The Bibliography of Chinese Botany. 1857-1981[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1985, 3(02): 64 .