Biodiversity Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 610-615.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.06045

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Herpetofauna of Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve in Tibet, China

Hujun Pan1, 2, Daode Yang1, Haihua Qin2, Liang Zhang2, Ke Jiang3, Huijian Hu2, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Wildlife Conservation, Central South University of Forestry & Technology, Changsha 410004
    2 South China Institute of Endangered Animals, Guangzhou 510260
    3 State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
  • Received:2013-02-20 Accepted:2013-06-14 Online:2013-10-08
  • Hu Huijian E-mail:13922339577@139.com

The Qomolangma National Nature Reserve (QNNR) in Tibet, China, is the highest nature reserve in the world and is characterized by a wide range in altitude. The QNNR was established to protect its vegetation, unique alpine ecosystem, and overall abundant biodiversity. Amphibians and reptiles are important components of its biodiversity, but are poorly understood. Thus, we surveyed amphibians and reptiles in the QNNR on 5 occasions between October 2010 and October 2012. This survey revealed 9 amphibian species, which belong to 6 genera, 3 families, and 1 order. All of these species belong to the Oriental Realm. We also recorded 11 reptile species belonging to 10 genera, 4 families, and 1 order. Among these species, 8 belong to the Oriental Realm and 3 to the Palearctic Realm. According to our records, the herptofauna of the QNNR is characterized by both endemic amphibian and reptile species with 2 endemic species and 6 quasi-endemic species in China. The estimated species richness of amphibians and reptiles in the reserve is likely to increase with further survey, especially along the southern slope of the Himalayas. A sharp dividing line between the Palearctic region and Oriental region in the QNNR occurs between 3,600-3,800 m a.s.l. with no transition zone.

Key words: Herptofauna, species diversity, Qomolangma National Nature Reserve

"

Table 1

Checklist of Herpetofauna of Qomolangma National Nature Reserve"

物种名
Species
生态类型
Ecological types
分布海拔
Altitude (m)
发现地
Founds
分布型
Distribution
收录来源
Recorded resources
受胁等级
Threaten levels
一 两栖纲AMPHIBIA
I 无尾目 ANURA
(一)角蟾科 Megophryidae
1.西藏齿突蟾 Scutiger boulengeri** Aq 4,042-4,146 G、T、D Hm S LC
2.锡金齿突蟾 S. sikkimmensis Aq DI N Ha D VU
3.张氏异角蟾 Xenophrys zhangi* Aq DI N Ha D VU
(二)蟾蜍科 Bufonidae
4. 喜山棱眶蟾 Duttaphrynus himalayanus** Te 700-3,350 G、N Ha S LC
(三)蛙科 Ranidae
5.湍蛙未定种 Amolops sp. Aq 2,000-2010 G Ha D
(四)叉舌蛙科 Dicroglossidae
6.高山倭蛙 Nanorana parkeri** Aq 3,806-4,611 G Pd S VU
7.波留宁棘蛙 Paa polunini Aq 2,610-2,990 N Ha S LC
8.棘臂蛙 P. liebigii Aq 1,500-3,500 G、N Ha S VU
9.棘蛙未定种 Paa sp. Aq 3,060-3,420 G Ha S
二 爬行纲 REPTILIA
II 有鳞目SQUAMATA
ⅰ 蜥蜴亚目 LACERTIFORMES
(一)鬛蜥科 Agamidae
1. 喜山攀蜥 Japalura kumaonenesis Ar 2,210-3,000 G、N Ha S -
2. 南亚岩蜥 Laudakia tuberculata** Te 2,000-2,300 G、N Ph S -
3. 西藏沙蜥 Phrynocephalus theobaldi* Te 4,000-4,540 G、T、N Hd S LC
(二)石龙子科 Scincidae
4. 喜山滑蜥 Scincella himalayana Te 2,000-2,550 G、N Ha S -
ⅱ 蛇亚目 SERPENTIFORMES
(三)游蛇科 Coluburidae
5. 南峰晨蛇 Orthriophis hodgsonii** Te 2,120-2,800 G Ha S -
6. 平头腹链蛇 Amphiesma platyceps** Se 2,500 N Ha S -
7. 小头坭蛇 Trachischium tenuiceps Te DI N He D -
8. 腹链蛇未定种 Amphiesma sp. Se 2,300 G Ha S -
(四)蝰科 Viperidae
9. 西藏竹叶青 Trimeresurus tibetanus Ar 2,800-3,000 N Ha S LC
10. 山烙铁头蛇 Ovophis monticola ^ Te DI N Wc I LC
11. 喜山原矛头蝮 Protobothrops himalayanus Te 2,060-2,706 G Ha S LC

Appendix 1

Transact information"

样线号
Transects
起点
Starting point
终点
Ending point
海拔下界
Lower altitude
(m)
海拔上界
Upper altitude
(m)
调查时间
QNNR-001 28.7638 E, 85.3094 N 28.7635 E, 85.3268 N 4,003 4,090 2012.8
QNNR-002 28.8290 E, 85.2877 N 28.8336 E, 85.2778 N 4,042 4,097 2012.8
QNNR-003 28.8431 E, 85.3061 N 28.8414 E, 85.3111 N 4,093 4,146 2012.8
QNNR-004 28.8770 E, 85.3107 N 28.8899 E, 85.2356 N 4,203 4,297 2012.8
QNNR-005 28.8872 E, 85.2440 N 28.8907 E, 85.2401 N 4,239 4,300 2012.8
QNNR-006 28.9000 E, 85.3322 N 28.9060 E, 85.3459 N 4,300 4,402 2012.8
QNNR-007 28.9071 E, 85.3327 N 28.9174 E, 85.3394 N 4,314 4,372 2012.8
QNNR-008 28.8926 E, 85.1590 N 28.8997 E, 85.1663 N 4,431 4,611 2012.8
QNNR-009 28.9076 E, 85.3541 N 28.9030 E, 85.3485 N 4,435 4,542 2012.8
QNNR-010 28.8836 E, 85.1435 N 28.8816 E, 85.1297 N 4,515 4,553 2012.8
QNNR-011 28.9005 E, 85.4767 N 28.8934 E, 85.4878 N 4,886 4,950 2012.5
QNNR-012 28.8672 E, 85.0814 N 28.8674 E, 85.0703 N 5,011 5,088 2012.8
QNNR-013 28.9390 E, 85.4090 N 28.9391 E, 85.3966 N 5,221 5,366 2012.5
QNNR-014 28.2860 E, 85.3598 N 28.2828 E, 85.3758 N 1,836 1,933 2012.9
QNNR-015 28.2805 E, 85.3774 N 28.2878 E, 85.3911 N 1,843 1,930 2012.9
QNNR-016 28.3090 E, 85.3401 N 28.3049 E, 85.3469 N 1,948 2,427 2012.9
QNNR-017 28.2952 E, 85.3965 N 28.3059 E, 85.4080 N 1,989 2,098 2012.9
QNNR-018 28.3188 E, 85.3396 N 28.3246 E, 85.3410 N 2,060 2,173 2012.9
QNNR-019 28.3117 E, 85.3464 N 28.3240 E, 85.3418 N 2,084 2,166 2012.9
QNNR-020 28.3016 E, 85.3539 N 28.3547 E, 85.3602 N 2,286 2,455 2012.9
QNNR-021 28.3179 E, 85.3321 N 28.3096 E, 85.3395 N 2,399 2,471 2012.9
QNNR-022 28.3118 E, 85.3335 N 28.3086 E, 85.3400 N 2,440 2,617 2012.6
QNNR-023 28.3826 E, 85.3498 N 28.3745 E, 85.3531 N 2,682 2,748 2012.8
QNNR-024 28.3709 E, 85.3209 N 28.3662 E, 85.3323 N 2,743 2,773 2012.5
QNNR-025 28.3810 E, 85.3500 N 28.3816 E, 85.3543 N 2,762 2,734 2012.8
QNNR-026 28.3944 E, 85.3284 N 28.3776 E, 85.3270 N 2,783 2,798 2012.8
QNNR-027 28.4087 E, 85.2975 N 28.4058 E, 85.3021 N 2,791 2,890 2012.8
QNNR-028 28.3983 E, 85.3129 N 28.4003 E, 85.3265 N 2,827 2,957 2012.5
QNNR-029 28.3872 E, 85.3340 N 28.3910 E, 85.3389 N 2,829 2,895 2012.5
QNNR-030 28.4055 E, 85.3011 N 28.3987 E, 85.3004 N 2,863 2,910 2012.8
QNNR-031 28.4299 E, 85.2635 N 28.4400 E, 85.2558 N 2,992 3,047 2012.8
QNNR-032 28.4474 E, 85.2466 N 28.4505 E, 85.2331 N 2,998 3,072 2012.8
QNNR-033 28.4574 E, 85.2240 N 28.4560 E, 85.2099 N 3,128 3,246 2012.8
QNNR-034 28.3974 E, 85.3755 N 28.3967 E, 85.3886 N 3,210 3,368 2012.8
QNNR-035 28.4054 E, 85.3411 N 28.4004 E, 85.3442 N 3,295 3,325 2012.8
QNNR-036 28.5048 E, 85.2201 N 28.5115 E, 85.2191 N 3,336 3,411 2012.8
QNNR-037 28.4182 E, 85.3567 N 28.4239 E, 85.3601 N 3,367 3,499 2012.8
QNNR-038 28.5226 E, 85.2161 N 28.5319 E, 85.2175 N 3,398 3,454 2012.5
QNNR-039 28.4178 E, 85.3405 N 28.4247 E, 85.3377 N 3,417 3,673 2012.8
QNNR-040 28.5358 E, 85.2134 N 28.5380 E, 85.2091 N 3,458 3,641 2012.5
QNNR-041 28.4040 E, 85.3879 N 28.4036 E, 85.3945 N 3,597 3,780 2012.8
QNNR-042 28.5625 E, 85.2506 N 28.5640 E, 85.2645 N 3,624 3,928 2012.5,
QNNR-043 28.5804 E, 85.2551 N 28.5693 E, 85.2493 N 3,631 3,757 2012.8
QNNR-044 28.5801 E, 85.2580 N 28.5792 E, 85.2601 N 3,651 3,825 2012.8
QNNR-045 28.5807 E, 85.2541 N 28.5810 E, 85.2449 N 3,800 3,946 2012.8
QNNR-046 28.6459 E, 85.2740 N 28.6587 E, 85.2849 N 3,806 3,906 2012.8
QNNR-047 28.6001 E, 85.2622 N 28.6029 E, 85.2752 N 3,819 3,932 2012.8
附表I (续) Appendix I (continued)
样线号
Transects
起点
Starting point
终点
Ending point
海拔下界
Lower altitude
(m)
海拔上界
Upper altitude
(m)
调查时间
QNNR-048 28.4033 E, 85.3954 N 28.3999 E, 85.4008 N 3,823 3,939 2012.8
QNNR-049 28.6689 E, 85.2807 N 28.6739 E, 85.2646 N 3,845 3,929 2012.8
QNNR-050 28.7632 E, 85.5736 N 28.7689 E, 85.5762 N 4,589 4,595 2011.5
QNNR-051 28.7612 E, 85.7906 N 28.7677 E, 85.7955 N 4,628 4,634 2011.5
QNNR-052 28.8005 E, 85.8480 N 28.8050 E, 85.8545 N 4,641 4,657 2011.5
QNNR-053 28.7069 E, 85.8593 N 28.7108 E, 85.8596 N 4,646 4,655 2011.5
QNNR-054 28.8870 E, 85.6481 N 28.8958 E, 85.6540 N 4,647 4,681 2011.5
QNNR-055 28.8397 E, 85.6874 N 28.8384 E, 85.6915 N 4,649 4,761 2011.5
QNNR-056 28.7611 E, 85.8440 N 28.7579 E, 85.8585 N 4,650 4,674 2011.5
QNNR-057 28.6602 E, 85.8931 N 28.6705 E, 85.8782 N 4,661 4,677 2011.5
QNNR-058 27.9872 E, 85.9827 N 27.9792 E, 85.9748 N 2,184 2,264 2011.5
QNNR-059 27.9510 E, 85.9663 N 27.9389 E, 85.9671 N 2,340 2,440 2011.7
QNNR-060 28.0048 E, 85.9764 N 28.0175 E. 85.9808 N 2,443 2,704 2011.5
QNNR-061 27.9930 E, 85.9855 N 27.9951 E, 85.9920 N 2,471 2,700 2011.5
QNNR-062 27.9433 E, 85.9745 N 27.9481 E, 85.9760 N 2,579 2,910 2011.7
QNNR-063 27.9572 E, 85.9751 N 27.9504 E, 85.9782 N 2,582 2,687 2011.5
QNNR-064 28.0271 E, 85.9843 N 28.3043 E, 85.9872 N 2,641 2,840 2011.5
QNNR-065 27.9598 E, 85.9820 N 27.9620 E, 85.9889 N 2,658 3,,275 2011.7
QNNR-066 27.9399 E, 85.9762 N 27.9349 E, 85.9808 N 2,843 2,975 2011.7
QNNR-067 27.9446 E, 85.9808 N 27.9446 E, 85.9897 N 2,912 3,146 2011.5
QNNR-068 27.9524 E, 86.0031 N 27.9472 E, 85.9911 N 3,167 3,562 2011.7
QNNR-069 28.0795 E, 85.9886 N 28.0820 E, 85.9797 N 3,175 3,639 2011.5
QNNR-070 27.9610 E, 86.0040 N 27.9614 E, 86.0108 N 3,339 3,618 2011.7
QNNR-071 27.9571 E, 86.0066 N 27.9584 E, 86.0121 N 3,502 3,699 2011.7
QNNR-072 28.4055 E, 86.1135 N 28.4137 E, 86.1195 N 4,380 4,404 2011.5
QNNR-073 28.8829 E, 86.4134 N 28.8991 E, 86.4055 N 4,391 4,398 2011.5
QNNR-074 28.9113 E, 86.3648 N 28.9103 E, 86.3797 N 4,414 4,426 2011.5
QNNR-075 28.9246 E, 86.3722 N 28.9399 E, 86.3727 N 4,419 4,428 2011.5
QNNR-076 28.6031 E, 86.6701 N 28.6074 E, 86.6732 N 4,311 4,322 2010.10
QNNR-077 28.5916 E, 86.6075 N 28.5983 E, 86.6054 N 4,319 4,328 2010.10
QNNR-078 28.6057 E, 86.5655 N 28.6019 E, 86.5790 N 4,322 4,333 2010.10
QNNR-079 28.5549 E, 86.6105 N 28.5618 E, 86.6087 N 4,339 4,352 2010.10
QNNR-080 28.5381 E, 86.6144 N 28.5254 E, 86.6199 N 4,360 4,380 2010.10
QNNR-081 28.4637 E, 86.6234 N 28.4792 E, 86.6220 N 4,467 4,499 2010.10
QNNR-082 28.3587 E, 86.6249 N 28.3462 E, 86.6311 N 4,848 4,916 2010.10
QNNR-083 28.2721 E, 86.5973 N 28.2886 E, 86.6030 N 4,878 4,902 2010.10
QNNR-084 28.0332 E, 86.2878 N 28.0354 E, 86.2942 N 2,989 3,049 2010.10
QNNR-085 28.0391 E, 86.3043 N 28.0422 E, 86.3190 N 3,120 3,190 2010.10
QNNR-086 28.0431 E, 86.3212 N 28.0320 E, 86.3278 N 3,206 3,515 2010.10
QNNR-087 28.0641 E, 86.3441 N 28.0687 E, 86.3573 N 3,491 3,584 2010.10
QNNR-088 28.1425 E, 86.4103 N 28.1407 E, 86.4158 N 3,975 4,081 2010.10
QNNR-089 28.1812 E, 86.4664 N 28.1813 E, 86.4768 N 4,511 4,722 2010.10
QNNR-090 28.2103 E, 86.5587 N 28.2130 E, 85.5661 N 5,214 5,373 2010.10
QNNR-091 27.8557 E, 87.4286 N 27.8500 E, 87.4318 N 2,224 2,284 2010.10
QNNR-092 27.8657 E, 87.4204 N 27.8628 E, 87.4236 N 2,236 2,276 2010.10
QNNR-093 27.8706 E, 87.4151 N 27.8613 E, 87.4228 N 2,245 2,504 2010.10
QNNR-094 27.8645 E, 87.4082 N 27.8639 E, 87.4018 N 2,380 2,478 2010.10
QNNR-095 27.8481 E, 87.4400 N 27.8577 E, 87.4471 N 2,467 2,562 2010.10
QNNR-096 27.8570 E, 87.3825 N 27.8585 E, 87.3798 N 2,486 2,576 2010.10
QNNR-097 27.9135 E, 87.5350 N 27.9178 E, 87.5341 N 3,917 4,045 2010.10
QNNR-098 27.9103 E, 87.6456 N 27.8999 E, 87.6693 N 4,445 4,511 2010.10
QNNR-099 27.9119 E, 87.6694 N 27.8981 E, 87.6693 N 4,459 4,510 2010.10
QNNR-100 28.3641 E, 87.7827 N 28.3721 E, 87.7905 N 4,192 4,198 2010.10
QNNR-101 28.3520 E, 87.7807 N 28.3458 E, 87.7800 N 4,193 4,215 2010.10
QNNR-102 28.3349 E, 87.7792 N 28.3233 E, 87.7716 N 4,200 4,265 2010.10
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