Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 758-771.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019087

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

The spatial overlapping analysis for China’s natural protected area and countermeasures for the optimization and integration of protected area system

Ma Tonghui, Lü Cai, Lei Guangchun()   

  1. School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2019-03-18 Accepted:2019-06-06 Online:2019-08-21
  • Lei Guangchun E-mail:guangchu.lei@foxmail.com

The construction of natural protected area system is a biodiversity conservation strategy which has been highly emphasized by international communities. In recent years, China expresses its concerns about the overlapping and intersection of natural protected area and proposed Guidance on Establishing a Natural Protected Area System Dominated by National Parks. To implement the proposed strategy, it is important to conduct a systematic study on the relationship and spatial distribution of the natural protected areas. This study collected data from 8,572 natural protected areas in different categories and administrative levels, including coordinates, types of ecosystems, administrative regions and boundaries. Among them, 1,532 natural protected areas with spatial overlapping and cross-jurisdictions were selected. Geographic concentration index (G) was calculated, and ArcGIS software was adopted for Kernel density estimation. Finally, the spatial distribution patterns, overlap of protected areas in ecological and geographic zones, ecosystem types, agencies with crossing jurisdiction and province locations were obtained. The results showed that: (1) Natural protected areas were concentrated in mountainous areas in central Shandong, Taihang Mountain, Dabie Mountain, Tianmu-Huaiyu Mountain and Wanjiang region, across multiple wetlands and forest ecosystems (Mean > 6, Max > 8). Among 10 pilot national parks, only Giant panda, Nanshan and Qianjiangyuan were located in areas with high density of overlapping; (2) The former State Administration of Forestry and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development had the largest number of sites under cross-jurisdiction among all the former agencies; (3) The number of overlapping natural protected areas in Heilongjiang, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Hunan provinces are significantly higher than other provinces. The overlap between Shanxi-Hebei-Henan and Anhui-Hubei-Jiangxi provinces is higher, and there is moderate overlap in other provinces. The areas studied above could become key priority areas for reassembling and optimizing China’s protected area system. Based on overlap hot zones, priority zones for biodiversity conservation, and cultural ecosystem services, this paper proposes a framework for reassembling and optimizing overlapped protected areas. According to 3 new protected area categories including national parks, nature reserves and natural parks, suggestions are given prioritizing reassembling and associating the area with a new category, which would provide a reference scheme to the urgent needs of ongoing reform of China’s natural protected areas system.

Key words: natural protected area, spatial overlapping, cross-management, optimization, national park

Table 1

Category and quantity of collected and existing natural protected areas in China"

类型
Category
本研究收集的中国自然保护地数量
Quantity of natural protected areas in China collected by this study
现存保护地数量
Number of existing protected areas
(Tang, 2018)
获取数量占
总数百分比
Total/Existing (%)
国家级
National
省级
Provincial
市级
Municipal
县级
County
总计
Total
自然保护区 Nature reserve 474 834 410 1,022 2,740 2,750 99.6
森林公园 Forest park 880 629 57 0 1,566 3,505 44.7
湿地公园 Wetland park 898 81 0 0 979 979 100
风景名胜区 Scenic spot 244 760 0 0 1,004 981 100
水利风景区 Water park 832 0 0 0 832 2,500 33.3
水源保护区 Water conservation reserve 614 0 0 0 614 618 99.4
水产种质资源保护区
Aquatic germplasm resources reserve
498 0 0 0 498 523 95.2
地质公园 Geological park 226 25 0 0 251 485 51.8
沙漠公园 Desert park 88 0 0 0 88 88 100
总计 Total 4,754 2,329 467 1,022 8,572 12,429 69.0

Table 2

Quantity of overlapping protected areas of different levels in China"

类型
Category
国家级
National
国家级以下Below national level 总计
Total
类型
Category
国家级 National 国家级以下Below national level 总计
Total
风景名胜区 Scenic spot 105 227 332 地质公园 Geological park 116 0 116
自然保护区 Nature reserve 105 190 295 水产种质资源保护区
Aquatic germplasm resources reserve
76 0 76
森林公园 Forest park 236 38 274 水源保护区 Water conservation reserve 47 0 47
水利风景区 Water park 204 0 204 沙漠公园 Desert park 5 0 5
湿地公园 Wetland park 164 19 183 总计 Total 1,058 474 1,532

Fig. 1

Quantity of overlapping protected areas of different types"

Fig. 2

Kernel density distribution of overlapping protected areas in ecological function zones. Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan are not included"

Table 3

Kernel density distribution in ecological function zones"

最大值 Max 平均值 Mean 最小值 Min
> 8 6-8 < 6 > 6 4-6 < 4 > 4 2-4 < 2
生态功能区编号Ecological function zone ID 47、5、61、
7、6、49、
62
30、10、59、37、60、
29、27、8、63、58、
32、34、28、4
- 47、61、6、
7、62、5、
59
32、58、27、
8、63、30、
25
- 47、61、6、
62、59、32、
58
5、8、63、60、
7、48
-

Fig. 3

Kernel density distribution of overlapping protected areas in biodiversity hotspots. Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan are not included."

Table 4

Quantity of overlapping natural protected areas in former departments"

林业部 F 住建部 H 水利部 W 国土部 L 农业部 A 环保部 E 其他 R
自然保护地 Natural protected areas 4,696 1,003 1,480 328 672 227 166
重叠保护地 Overlapping natural protected areas 693 334 254 127 90 23 12
百分比 Percentage (%) 14.8 33.3 17.2 38.7 13.4 10.1 7.2

Table 5

Quantity of cross-management natural protected areas in former departments"

Fig. 4

Quantity of various types of natural protected areas in provinces (autonomous region or direct-controlled municipalities). Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan are not included."

Fig. 5

Statistics on categories of overlapping protected areas in different provinces. Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan are not included."

Fig. 6

The geographic concentration index of different provinces (autonomous region or direct-controlled municipalities) in China. Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan are not included."

Fig. 7

Kernel density distribution of administrative boundary. Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan are not included."

Fig. 8

Framework for prior integration of overlapping protected areas"

Table 6

Proposed integration scheme for hot zones of overlapping protected areas"

生态功能区编号Ecological function zone ID 核密度
Kernel density
生物多样性热点
区编号 Biodiversity hotspots ID
核密度
Kernel density
个数
Number
保护地类型Category of protected areas 建议整合类型
Suggested integration category
62 Max = 8.2
Mean = 6.2
/ / 5 NR: 2
OP: 3
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
60 Max = 7.0
Mean = 3.7
3 Max = 7.0
Mean = 3.8
8 NR: 5
OP: 3
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
59 Max = 7.5
Mean = 6.1
26 Max = 7.2
Mean = 4.7
8 NR: 3
OP: 5
国家公园类 National park
49 Max = 8.4
Mean = 3.1
19 Max= 5.6
Mean = 3.2
4 NR: 1
OP: 3
国家公园类 National park
/ 23 NR: 4
OP: 5
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
47 Max = 12.2
Mean = 9.8
/ / NR: 9
OP: 36
自然公园类 Natural park
37 Max = 6.2
Mean = 2.5
21 Max = 5.0
Mean = 2.3
20 NR: 5
OP: 15
国家公园类 National park
22 Max = 5.4
Mean = 2.6
8 NR: 3
OP: 5
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
/ / 5 NR: 0
OP: 5
自然公园类 Natural park
30 Max = 8.0
Mean = 4.0
24 Max = 6.3
Mean = 3.4
18 NR: 5
OP: 13
国家公园类 National park
23 Max = 7.5
Mean = 3.9
12 NR: 2
OP: 11
国家公园类 National park
/ / 26 NR: 2
OP: 24
自然公园类 Natural park
29 Max = 7.0
Mean = 3.4
0 Max = 5.4
Mean = 3.1
7 NR: 1
OP: 6
国家公园类 National park
22 Max = 5.4
Mean = 2.6
3 NR: 0
OP: 3
自然公园类 Natural park
11 Max = 6.5
Mean = 4.0
28 NR: 2
OP: 26
国家公园类 National park
/ / 16 NR: 3
OP: 13
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
27 Max = 7.0
Mean = 4.5
7 Max = 7.0
Mean = 4.3
10 NR: 2
OP: 8
国家公园类 National park
/ / 8 NR: 0
OP: 8
自然公园类 Natural park
10 Max = 8.0
Mean = 3.7
23 Max = 7.5
Mean = 3.9
31 NR: 7
OP: 24
国家公园类 National park
/ / 13 NR: 3
OP: 10
自然公园类 Natural park
7 Max = 9.8
Mean = 6.3
1 Max = 9.4
Mean = 6.6
26 NR: 3
OP: 23
国家公园类 National park
/ / 7 NR: 0
OP: 7
自然公园类 Natural park
6 Max = 9.8
Mean = 7.8
29 Max = 9.8
Mean = 8.0
24 NR: 3
OP: 21
国家公园类 National park
/ / 25 NR: 3
OP: 22
自然公园类 Natural park
5 Max =11.2
Mean = 6.2
13 Max = 11.0
Mean = 6.1
31 NR: 4
OP: 28
国家公园类 National park
/ / 32 NR: 1
OP: 31
自然公园类 Natural park
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