Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 932-942.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019026

• Special Feature: Snow Leopards: Survey, Research and Conservation Status in China • Previous Article     Next Article

Ongoing threats and the current status of snow leopard conservation in China

Xiaoyu Li1#, Lingyun Xiao1#, Xuchang Liang2, Chen Cheng1, Chen Feng3, Xiang Zhao3, Yanlin Liu4, Xiaoxing Bian2, Bing He5, Changzhi Zhang5, Justine Shanti Alexander6, Rui Xing7, Yahui Huang7, Awangjiumei 8, Xierannima 9, Dazhao Song4, Qiaowen Huang4, 10, Kui Peng11, Hang Yin12, Xinming Lian13, Xin Yang14, Sheng Li1, Xiaogang Shi15, Chuangming Yang16, Zhi Lü1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Wildlife Conservation Society, Beijing 100101
    3 Shan Shui Conservation Center, Beijing 100871
    4 Chinese Felid Conversation Alliance, Beijing 101121
    5 World Wide Fund for Nature, Beijing 100037
    6 Snow Leopard Trust, Seattle WA 98103, USA
    7 Wild Xinjiang, Urumqi 830000
    8 Plateau Nature Conservancy, Xining 810012
    9 People’s Government of Suojia Township, Zhiduo County, Yushu, Qinghai 815400
    10 Nyanpo Yutse Conservation Association, Golog, Qinghai 624700
    11 Global Environmental Institute, Beijing 100600
    12 Gangri Neichog Research and Conservation Center, Xining 810007
    13 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    14 Greenriver Environmental Protection Association of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610041
    15 Wolong National Nature Reserve, Wenchuan, Sichuan 623006
    16 Gongga Mountain National Nature Reserve, Garzê, Sichuan 626000
  • Received:2019-01-31 Accepted:2019-08-31 Online:2019-09-25
  • Lü Zhi E-mail:luzhi@pku.edu.cn

When working with widespread large carnivores, most conservation organizations can only perform direct conservation actions for a specific population, but the extinction risk of a species is evaluated at a global scale. Here, we aim to bridge this impact gap by assessing the work and opinions from many organizations. We combines knowledge from scientific literature with the observations of 24 front-line staff working at 18 Chinese snow leopard research and conservation organizations. Through attending two group-meetings and by filling in threat-scoring spreadsheets, we identified 21 threats and ranked them at both the national and provincial levels. The five main snow leopard distribution provinces are Qinghai, Tibet, Xinjiang, Sichuan and Gansu. Also, we analyzed 17 conservation actions conducted by these conservation organizations, as well as the threats these actions attempted to address. The top three threats in China are the insufficient capacity of local conservation departments (9.5 points), climate change (8.0 points), and the lack of conservation incentive among local communities (6.8 points), although large differences exist between provinces. There is currently no action being taken in response to climate change. Although some conservation actions have addressed the insufficient capacity of local conservation departments and the lack of conservation awareness in local communities, such as by building up the capacity of conservation areas and monitoring by communities, respectively, the spatial coverage of these actions is still far from sufficient.

Key words: snow leopard, China, threat assessment, expert opinion, conservation actions

Table 1

Threat to snow leopard in China"

威胁分类
Category of threat
威胁名称
Threat
编号
No.
参考文献
Reference
对雪豹的直接猎杀
或抓捕
Direct killing or
capture of snow leopards
报复性猎杀
In retribution for livestock depredation (RLD)
1.1 Oli et al, 1994; Xu et al, 2008; Li et al, 2013; Alexander et al, 2015; Chen et al, 2016; Wild Xinjiang
非法贸易导致的偷猎
Poaching for illegal trade (PIT)
1.2 Zhang, 1985; Schaller et al, 1988; Liu, 1993; EIA, 2008, 2012; Peng, 2009; Ma, 2012; Li & Lü, 2014; Maheshwari & Niraj, 2018
动物园和博物馆的活体收集
Zoo and museum collection of live animals (ZMC)
1.3 Ma, 2012; Shan Shui Conservation Center
下毒、下套等导致的误杀
Secondary poisoning and trapping (SPT)
1.4 Li et al, 2013; Shan Shui Conservation Center
雪豹疾病 Diseases of snow leopards (DSL) 1.5 Fix et al, 1989; Silinski et al, 2003; An, 2016; Ostrowski & Gilbert, 2016; Shan Shui Conservation Center
栖息地和猎物相关
威胁
Threat about habitats and preys
栖息地退化 Habitat degradation (HD) 2.1 Brown, 2008; Harris, 2010; Wang et al, 2015
栖息地破碎化 Habitat fragmentation (HF) 2.2 World Wide Fund for Nature; Xu et al, 2008; Li, 2012; Wild Xinjiang
盗猎和误杀导致的猎物种群减少
Prey reduction due to poaching and mistaken killing (PRPMK)
2.3 Schaller et al, 1988; Shan Shui Conservation Center
家畜竞争导致的猎物种群减少
Prey reduction due to competition with livestock (PRCL)
2.4 Mishra et al, 2004; Suryawanshi et al, 2010; Xiao, 2017; Wild Xinjiang
猎物疾病 Diseases of prey (DP) 2.5 Fedosenko & Blank, 2001; Dagleish et al, 2007; Wang et al, 2009; Bao et al, 2011; Ostrowski et al, 2011; Ostrowski & Gilbert, 2016; Wild Xinjiang
政策和认知相关
威胁
Threat about policy
and cognition
普遍认知缺乏导致的政策不当
Improper policy due to lack of cognition (IP)
3.1 Li et al, 2017
政策实施不力
Ineffective implementation of policies (IIP)
3.2 Mishra et al, 2003; Chen et al, 2016; Shan Shui Conservation Center
缺乏跨省(境)合作
Lack of trans-boundary cooperation (LTC)
3.3 -
基层保护部门能力不足
Insufficient capacity of local conservation departments (ICLCD)
3.4 -
当地社区保护动力不足
Lack of conservation incentive among local communities (LCILC)
3.5 -
间接威胁
Indirect threat
气候变化 Climate change (CC) 4.1 IPCC, 2007; Klein et al, 2007; Xue et al, 2009; Vince, 2010; Yu et al, 2010; Forrest et al, 2012; Lovari et al, 2013; Yao et al, 2013; Luo et al, 2015; Aryal et al, 2016; Lehnert et al, 2016; Li et al, 2016; Yang et al, 2018
人口增长和贫困
Human population growth and poverty (HPGP)
4.2 Mishra et al, 2001, 2003; Adams et al, 2004; McShane & Wells, 2004
流浪狗袭击雪豹及其猎物
Stray dogs attack snow leopards and their prey (SDA)
4.3 Wandeler et al, 1993; Butler et al, 2004; Mingyu Liu (Peking University)
虫草/药草采挖造成的干扰
Interference caused by cordyceps/herb collection (ICCC)
4.4 Shan Shui Conservation Center
道路建设与旅游开发项目
Road construction and tourism development projects (RCTD)
4.5 Wild Xinjiang; Wolong National Nature Reserve
矿产与水电开发
Mineral exploration and hydropower development (MEHD)
4.6 Wingard & Zahler, 2006; Baker et al, 2010; Jackson et al, 2013

Fig. 1

Rankings of threats to snow leopard at national and provincial level. RLD, In retribution for livestock depredation; PIT, Poaching for illegal trade; ZMC, Zoo and museum collection of live animals; SPT, Secondary poisoning and trapping of snow leopards; DSL, Diseases of snow leopards; HD, Habitat degradation; HF, Habitat fragmentation; PRPMK, Prey reduction due to poaching and mistaken killing; PRCL, Prey reduction due to competition with livestock; DP, Diseases of prey; IP, Improper policy due to lack of cognition; IIP, Ineffective implementation of policies; LTC, Lack of trans-boundary cooperation; ICLCD, Insufficient capacity of local conservation departments; LCILC, Lack of conservation incentive among local communities; CC, Climate change; HPGP, Human population growth and poverty; SDA, Stray dogs attack snow leopards and their prey; ICCC, Interference caused by cordyceps/herb collection; RCTD, Road construction and tourism development projects; MEHD, Mineral exploration and hydropower development."

Table 2

Protective actions and corresponding threat at national and provincial level (Mean of the numbers are shown in Table 1)"

保护行动
Protective actions
青海
Qinghai
西藏
Tibet
四川
Sichuan
新疆
Xinjiang
甘肃
Gansu
全国
China
应对威胁
Corresponding threat
保护地建设<BR/>Development of nature reserves 保护区监测与反盗猎巡护
Monitoring in conservation area and anti-poaching patrol
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.3
保护区能力建设 Capacity building of conservation area 3.4
建立新保护地 Establishing new conservation areas 2.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.5, 4.6
在地保护行动<BR/>Local protective actions 人兽冲突补偿/保险
Compensation/insurance for human-wildlife conflict
1.1, 1.4, 3.1, 4.2
扶贫/生计改善
Poverty alleviation/livelihood improvement
1.1, 1.4, 2.1, 2.4, 3.5, 4.2
社区/公民志愿者监测与反盗猎巡护
Community/citizen volunteer monitoring and anti-poaching patrol
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.3, 3.4, 3.5
放牧管理 Grazing management 2.1, 2.4
家畜疫病防治 Livestock disease prevention 2.5
拆除围栏 Fence removal 2.1, 2.2
流浪狗管理 Stray dogs ??management 1.5, 4.3
虫草/药草采集管理 Cordyceps/herb collection management 4.4
社区宣传教育 Community education 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 2.3, 3.2, 3.4, 3.5,4.4
政策与公众推动<BR/>Policy and public promotion 制定保护规划 Protection planning 3.1, 3.2
生态补偿 Ecological compensation 2.1, 2.4, 3.4, 3.5, 4.2
管理开发/发展类项目 Management of development projects 2.1, 2.2, 4.5, 4.6
政策建议 Policy suggestion 3.1, 3.2
公众宣传 Publicity 1.2, 3.1

Fig. 2

Global key landscape of snow leopard, national protected area and snow leopard distribution map"

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[1] Huang Tian-fang. The Preliminary Research into the Greening of the Lotus (nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn.) Seed Embryo ''[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(03): 48 -50 .
[2] Zhang Hong Jian Ling-cheng Li Guang-min. Studies of Plant Cold-Resister for Enhancing Cold-Resistant Ability and Cold Stability of Cellular Membrane System in Cucumber Seedlings[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(特辑): 154 -162 .
[3] Lin Zhong-ping. Isolating of mRNA and Polysome from Plant[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1984, 2(05): 52 -54 .
[4] Wu Xian-jun;Li Ping;Zhao Zhen-ju;Wang Qian;Li Chao-luan;Huang Rong and Cheng Fa-ling. Studies on the biological characteristics of Cycas panzhihuaensis, I. Morphology and anatomy of vegetative organs[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(专辑): 38 -40 .
[5] Zhao Zhi-li Liu Ke-zhi Zhou Nai-jian Zeng Bi-tao Tian Li-xie Zhou Gu-yu. Correlative Heritability and Its Application in Setaria italica Breeding[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(01): 59 -63 .
[6] Xu Bing-sheng and Gu De-xing. Polymorphism in plant population[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1983, 1(01): 24 -25 .
[7] Yang Si-lin;Terrence Walters;Pu Hong and Deena D. Walters. Conservation population genetics and systematics of Chinese cycads (synopsis)[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(专辑): 43 -46 .
[8] Jiang Gao-ming. The Impact of Globae Increasing of CO2 on Plants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(04): 1 -7 .
[9] ZENG Xian-Dong YU Long-Jiang LI Wei YANG Ying WU Yun. Stability of Carbonic Anhydrase in Leaves of Vitex negundo in Karst Areas of Southwest China[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(02): 169 -174 .
[10] Lu Cong-ming;Zheng Qi-de;Kuang Ting-yun and Gao Yu-zhu. Effect of Water Stress on The Photosynthetic Electron Transport of Mesophyll Cells of Ipomonea Betatas[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(01): 43 -47 .