Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 5-12.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018246

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Evaluating the effectiveness of functional zones for black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) protection in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot site

Yu Jianping1, Shen Yunyi2, Song Xiaoyou1, Chen Xiaonan1, Li Sheng2, Shen Xiaoli3, *()   

  1. 1 Center of Ecology and Resources, Qianjiangyuan National Park, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
    2 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    3 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2018-09-13 Accepted:2019-01-02 Online:2019-03-15
  • Shen Xiaoli

Functional zoning is a method of classifying areas to define human use and is of great significance for the effective management of protected areas. Qianjiangyuan National Park is one of the ten national park pilot sites in China and is divided into four functional zones, the core protection zone, ecological conservation zone, recreation zone and traditional utilization zone. Each zone is assigned a different level of protection and corresponding management measures. This study examined the spatial overlap of existing functional zones in Qianjiangyuan and suitable habitats for its target conservation species, the endangered black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons). We constructed distribution models based on 94 occurrence locations obtained from camera-trapping surveys from 2014-2018 using MaxEnt. Fifteen covariates related to altitude, topography, vegetative characteristics and human disturbance were used in the MaxEnt models to predict suitable habitats for the black muntjac. The results showed that the black muntjac tended to inhabit areas with intact forest and low road density. We identified 42.5 km 2 of suitable habitat, which accounted for 16.9% of the land in Qianjiangyuan National Park. Of this suitable habitat, 69.3% and 30.4% were located in the core protection zone and ecological conservation zone, respectively, which indicated that the existing zone designations can protect black muntjac habitat appropriately. These results also indicated that the black muntjac may serve as an indicator species of the subtropical primary forests where it lives. Promoting habitat integrity for the black muntjac by restoring habitat, constructing corridors and managing across provinces will be key to strengthening the protection of the black muntjac in the region.

Key words: national park, functional zones, black muntjac, species distribution model, corridor

Fig. 1

Camera-trapping survey grids and the occurrence locations of black muntjac in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, 2014-2018"

Table 1

Environmental variables used to construct the distribution models of black muntjac in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot site"

变量 Variables 代码 Code 变量类型 Data type 范围/类型 Range/Content
海拔 Elevation (m) ELE 连续 Continuous 170-1,260
坡度 Slope (o) Slope 连续 Continuous 0-53.2
坡向 Aspect Aspect 分类 Categorical 阳坡/阴坡 Warm/cold aspect
地表崎岖度 Ruggedness (m) TRI 连续 Continuous 0-52.7
土地利用类型 Land use type LU 分类 Categorical 乔木林、竹林、疏林、特殊灌木林地、苗圃等13类 Forest, bamboo forest, shrub, special shrub land, nursery etc.
森林类型 Forest type FOR_type 分类 Categorical 针叶林、阔叶林、针阔混交林、非林地 Conifer, broadleaf, conifer and broadleaf mixed forest, and non-forest
森林完整性 Forest intactness FOR_int 分类 Categorical 无干扰的原始林、轻度干扰的天然林、重度干扰的天然林或人工林 Primary forest, natural forest with light disturbance, natural forest with heavy disturbance/planted forests
林龄 Age of stand FOR_age 分类 Categorical 幼龄林、中龄林、近熟林、成熟林、过熟林、非林地 Young forest, middle-aged forest, near-mature forest, mature forest, over-ripe forest, non-forest land
优势树种 Dominant species FOR_spp 分类 Categorical 马尾松, 黄山松, 池杉等共60类
Pinus massoniana, Pinus taiwanensis, Taxodium ascendens, etc.
主干道密度 Density of large roads (m/km2) LRD_den 连续 Continuous 0-2.01
总道路密度 Density of all roads (m/km2) TRD_den 连续 Continuous 0.04-4.37
与最近道路距离 Distance to nearest road (m) TRD_dist 连续 Continuous 0-3,750
居民点密度 House density (m2/km2) HOU_den 连续 Continuous 0-75,100
与最近居民点距离 Distance to nearest house (m) HOU_dist 连续 Continuous 0-2,650
河流密度 River density (m/km2) RIV_den 连续 Continuous 0.40-2.22
与最近河流距离 Distance to nearest river (m) RIV_dist 连续 Continuous 0-1,150

Table 2

Characteristics of the suitable habitat patches, including the six largest patches, of black muntjac in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot site"

Patch ID
Area (ha)
Core area (ha)
Number of core area
Core area percentage (%)
所有斑块 All patches 4,254 1,992 92 46.8
1 52 10 2 19.4
2 68 13 5 20.0
3 262 171 1 65.2
4 273 92 13 33.9
5 660 195 14 34.9
6 2,395 1,457 28 60.8

Fig. 2

Distribution of black muntjac suitable habitat patches in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot site. Number 1-6 marks the 6 largest suitable habitat patches, represented in different colors; the left patches are shown in green."

Fig. 3

Results of Jackknife evaluation on the relative importance of environmental variables to the presence of black muntjac. Please refer to Table 1 for code definition."

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