Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (11): 1147-1157.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018135

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in a secondary forest in montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China

Junqi Cai1, Dapeng Liu2, Shuyuan Zhang1, Guo Zong1, Jia Liu1, Xuejiao Bai1, 3, *()   

  1. 1 College of Forestry, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866
    2 Benxi Manzu Autonomous County Lanhe Valley Forest Farm, Benxi, Liaoning 117103
    3 Qingyuan Forest Ecosystem Observation Station, Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
  • Received:2018-05-04 Accepted:2018-08-18 Online:2019-01-08
  • Bai Xuejiao
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

To explore the composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in the montane region of eastern Liaoning Province in China, we established 1,600 seedling quadrats of size 5 m × 5 m (25 m2) within a 4-ha plot to monitor forest dynamics. We analyzed species composition, height-class structure, interannual dynamics and spatial distribution of tree seedlings from three censuses (2014 to 2016). We recorded a total of 22 species of tree seedlings during the survey period. The species composition of tree seedlings did not vary significantly among years, but varied greatly among quadrats. Species that dominated as seedlings largely reflected the dominant species among adults. Tree seedling numbers varied significantly among different tree species across years, with Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Acer mono and Juglans mandshurica accounting for 75.6% of the total seedlings in the three censuses. The abundances of F. rhynchophylla and J. mandshurica seedlings varied greatly among three years, while the other species varied little. Similarly, seedling density also varied greatly among different species. We also found interspecific and interannual variation in new seedling recruits and those that died. Recruit abundance during 2014-2015 (3,888) was higher than 2015-2016 (1,710), and the seedling mortality rate was also higher in 2014-2015 (23.7%) than 2015-2016 (12.7%). The mortality rate of recruited seedlings (18.8%) was higher than that of existing seedlings (8.1%) during 2015-2016. Finally, we found that the dominant seedlings showed spatially clustered distributions and the spatial pattern of seedling distributions was consistent with that of adults of the species.

Key words: forest regeneration, interannual dynamics, spatial distribution, montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, secondary forest

Fig. 1

Topography of the 4 ha secondary forest plot in montane region of eastern Liaoning Province"

Table 1

Species composition, mortality and recruitment rates of seedings, and the number of quadrats presented with recruited seedlings across different years"

Table 2

Species composition and quantitative characteristics of tree seedlings in 2014"

No. of
Seedling density
(mean ± SE,
n = 1,600)
CV of seedling
density (%)
花曲柳 Fraxinus rhynchophylla 5,189 3.685 ± 0.347 376.97 32.93 10.81 21.87
色木槭 Acer mono 3,910 2.777 ± 0.146 209.71 24.81 17.13 20.97
胡桃楸 Juglans mandshurica 1,712 1.216 ± 0.040 131.52 10.86 19.53 15.20
暴马丁香 Syringa amurensis 827 0.587 ± 0.042 288.83 5.25 7.13 6.19
假色槭 Acer pseudo-sieboldianum 742 0.527 ± 0.044 336.29 4.71 5.53 5.12
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandshruica 622 0.442 ± 0.042 379.44 3.95 5.42 4.69
山杨 Populus davidiana 614 0.436 ± 0.046 425.41 3.90 3.17 3.54
灯台树 Bothrocaryum controversum 379 0.269 ± 0.023 348.90 2.40 4.58 3.49
裂叶榆 Ulmus laciniata 291 0.207 ± 0.015 283.45 1.85 4.93 3.39
蒙古栎 Quercus mongolica 240 0.170 ± 0.016 386.00 1.52 3.05 2.29
青楷槭 Acer tegmentosum 208 0.148 ± 0.014 379.95 1.32 3.01 2.17
小楷槭 Acer komarovii 178 0.126 ± 0.012 383.95 1.13 2.82 1.98
怀槐 Maackia amurensis 180 0.128 ± 0.012 378.25 1.14 2.71 1.93
稠李 Prunus padus 172 0.122 ± 0.013 440.27 1.09 2.55 1.82
水榆花楸 Sorbus alnifolia 143 0.102 ± 0.010 379.01 0.91 2.57 1.74
千金榆 Carpinus cordata 154 0.109 ± 0.012 434.08 0.98 2.34 1.66
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 86 0.061 ± 0.007 483.57 0.55 1.20 0.88
花楷槭 Acer ukurunduense 41 0.029 ± 0.008 1,105.50 0.26 0.58 0.42
黄檗 Phellodendron amurense 33 0.023 ± 0.007 1,215.70 0.21 0.42 0.32
春榆 Ulmus propinqua 29 0.021 ± 0.005 1,022.49 0.18 0.35 0.27
黄榆 Ulmus macrocarpa 7 0.005 ± 0.002 1,415.22 0.04 0.12 0.08
三花槭 Acer triflorum 3 0.002 ± 0.001 2,164.87 0.02 0.07 0.05
总计 Total 15,760 100.00 100.00 100.00

Table 3

The results of perMANOVA for tree seedlings during 2014-2016"

自由度 df 平方和 SS 均方和 MS F P
年份 Year 2 343.18 171.591 4,016.3 0.001***
残差 Residuals 4,797 204.95 0.043
总数 Total 4,799 548.13
2014 vs. 2015 2,674.386 0.001
2014 vs. 2016 5,036.132 0.001
2015 vs. 2016 7,513.394 0.001

Table 4

The results of perMANOVA for recruited tree seedlings during 2014-2016"

自由度 df 平方和 SS 均方和 MS F P
年份 Year 1 166.74 166.744 2,701.5 0.001***
残差 Residuals 3,198 197.39 0.062
总数 Total 3,198 364.13

Fig. 2

Height distribution of seedlings and the number of quadrats occurred with number of species in 2014-2016"

Fig. 3

Height distribution of dead seedlings in 2014-2016 and height distribution of dead recruited and existing seedlings in 2015-2016"

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