Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (10): 1034-1050.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018122

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Spatial patterns and assembly rules in soil fauna communities: A review

Meixiang Gao1, 2, Lin Lin1, 2, Liang Chang3, Xin Sun3, Dong Liu3, Donghui Wu3, 4, *()   

  1. 1 College of Geographical Sciences, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025
    2 Heilongjiang Province Key Laboratory of Geographical Environment Monitoring and Spatial Information Service in Cold Regions, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025
    3 Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Scieneces, Changchun 130102
    4 Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024
  • Received:2018-04-16 Accepted:2018-07-03 Online:2019-01-06
  • Wu Donghui E-mail:wudonghui@neigae.ac.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

Identifying spatial patterns and assembly rules in communities is a central study topic in ecology. With the unprecedented rate at which biodiversity is decreasing, it is necessary to recognize the spatial patterns and assembly rules in communities in order to understand why biodiversity is being lost and to be able to protect it. However, previous studies have focused more on plant communities in above-ground terrestrial ecosystems, neglecting below-ground ecosystems, especially soil faunal communities. Indeed, soil faunal biodiversity is a crucial component of global biodiversity because soil faunal communities assist in the maintenance of important ecosystem structures and functions. Therefore, one important aim of identifying spatial patterns and assembly rules in soil faunal communities is to clarify mechanisms of maintaining soil faunal biodiversity at multiple scales, so as to promote these processes, which also maintain ecosystem structures and functions. Soil faunal communities usually form complicated spatial patterns at multiple spatial scales. Here, we propose spatial autocorrelation characteristics, and then show how the complicated spatial patterns are demonstrated by patches and gaps of soil faunal communities at multiple scales. These spatial patterns are mainly controlled by processes of biotic interactions, environmental filtering and random dispersal. Consequently, we discuss the impacts of these processes on soil faunal communities. Finally, we suggest that these three processes are essential to evaluate and construct a theoretical framework for soil faunal communities and should continue to be studied in the future. Because interest in spatial patterns and assembly rules of soil faunal communities is relatively new in China, we expect this review will promote the development of related research areas.

Key words: spatial scale, spatial heterogeneity, biodiversity maintainance, biotic interaction, environmental filtering, random dispersal

Table 1

Spatial autocorrelation distances of main soil animal communities"

群落
Community
生境 Habitat 空间幅度 Spatial
extent (m2)
空间自相关距离
Range (A0, m)
参考文献
Reference
土壤蚯蚓
Earthworm
草地
Grassland
- 1-50 Decaëns et al, 2009
森林
Forest
10,000 17-50 Gutiérrez-López
et al, 2010
土壤跳虫
Soil collembola
森林
Forest
10,000 20-27 Gutiérrez-López
et al, 2010
农田
Cropland
250 5-50 高梅香等, 2014c
土壤螨类
Soil mite
森林
Forest
25 0.5-5 高梅香等, 2014a
10,000 17-30 Gutiérrez-López
et al, 2010
农田
Cropland
250 5-40 高梅香等, 2014b
土壤线虫
Soil nematode
草地
Grassland
1,500 4-60 Rossi & Quénéhervé, 1998
农田
Cropland
1,200 9-91 Liang et al, 2005
地表甲虫
Ground beetle
森林Forest 25 1-2.5 胡媛媛等, 2018
400 5-10 朱纪元等, 2017
900 150-450 倪娟平等, 2018b
农田
Cropland
1,600 40-150 刘洁等, 2017

Fig. 1

Kriging prediction maps for ground carabid (August 2015) and soil collembolan (September 2014) communities (Gao et al, 2018)"

Fig. 2

The filter model of community assembly (imitating from Vellend, 2016). In this hypothetical example, a random subset of species in the regional pool has access to a local site; only species with rounded edges can tolerate the environmental conditions; and competition leads to the elimination of all but one species of each functional type (shape). The two remaining species can coexist stably given contrasting resource requirements."

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