Biodiv Sci ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (1): 14-26.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017255

• Original Papers: Animal Diversity • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatial heterogeneities of ground-dwelling Coleoptera adults and their spatial correlations with environmental factors in a typical broad-leaved Korean pine forest in the Fenglin Nature Reserve

Juanping Ni1,2, Saisai Cheng1,2, Meixiang Gao1,2,*(), Tingyu Lu1,2, Guangze Jin3   

  1. 1 College of Geographical Sciences, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025
    2 Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Monitoring of Geographic Environment, College of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025
    3 Center for Ecological Research, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040
  • Received:2017-09-25 Accepted:2018-01-15 Online:2018-01-20 Published:2018-05-05
  • Contact: Gao Meixiang
  • About author:# Co-first authors

Abstract:

Spatial heterogeneities of soil animal communities and their associations with environmental factors are important for revealing the patterns and processes of soil ecosystems and maintenance mechanisms of soil biodiversity. This experiment was conducted in a typical mixed broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in the Fenglin Nature Reserve in August and October of 2015. Geostatistics was used to reveal the spatial patterns of species number and individuals of ground-dwelling Carabidae and Staphylinidae adult communities and dominant species, and to explain the associations between these spatial patterns and soil water content and topographic variables. In total, 26 and 19 species of Carabidae and Staphylinidae beetles were caught and 617 and 222 individuals were collected, respectively. Variabilities in individuals and species numbers of communities were moderate in August and strong in October. Community compositions were significantly different between the two months. Carabidae and Staphylinidae communities showed moderate spatial autocorrelations in both growing (August) and relatively cold (October) seasons. Spatial heterogeneities of the Carabidae and Staphylinidae communities were determined by both random and structural factors. However, most species individuals exhibited significant spatial heterogeneities and these heterogeneities were controlled by structural factors. Individuals and species number of communities and dominant species individuals formed mosaic patterns with patches and gaps. Spatial associations between individuals and species numbers of communities and dominant species individuals with environmental factors were complex. Spatial associations were mainly controlled by structural or random factors. CCA analysis showed that soil water content in August had a significant effect on the species distribution of Carabidae and Staphylinidae adults in August. In October, the convexity had a significant impact on the distribution of Carabidae adults, and altitude was significantly related to the distribution of Staphylinidae adults. This experiment suggests that the spatial heterogeneities of Carabidae and Staphylinidae adults were obvious in the growing season, but not obvious in the relatively cold season. The results of this study will help us to understand the spatial variation and biodiversity maintenance mechanisms of soil animal communities at multiple scales.

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Key words: Carabidae, Staphylinidae, topographic factors, spatial heterogeneity, spatial association, mixed broad-leaved Korean pine forest